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rad exams

Extremity x-ray review

QuestionAnswer
Where do you center the CR for the toes? 3rd MTP joint
Where do you center for almost all foot projections? Base of the third metatarsal
Where do you center the CR for a tangential projection of the sesmoids? perpendicular the first MTP joint
Where do you center the CR for an Axial plantodorsal projection of the calcaneus? 40 degrees cephalic at the the base of the third metatarsal
Where do you center the CR for an Axial dorsoplantar projection of the calcaneus? 40 degrees caudad at the dorsal surface of the ankle joint
Where do you center for the lateral projection of the calcaneus? 1" distal to the medial malleolus
What kind of fracture is demonstrated in a mediolateral projection of the ankle? jones fracture: fx of the 5th metatarsal base
A lateral oblique projection demonstrates what? The superior aspect of the calcaneus
Inversion stress of the ankle shows? rupture of lateral ligament
Eversion stress of the ankle shows? medial ligament
The CR is directed where for an AP projection of the Knee on a patient with a thin pelvis thickness of less than 18 cm? 3-5 degrees caudad 1/2 inferior to the patellar apex
The CR is directed where for an AP projection of the Knee on a patient with a pelvis thickness of less than 19-24 cm? perpendicular 1/2 inferior to the patellar apex
The CR is directed where for an AP projection of the Knee on a patient with a large pelvis thickness of 25 cm and above? 3-5 degrees cephalic inferior to the patellar apex
Where is the CR directed for a PA projection of the knee? 5-7 degrees caudad 1/2" inferior to the patellar apex
How many degrees do you flex the knee on a lateral projection to visualize optimum joint space? 20-30 degrees
Where do you center the CR for a Lateral Projection of the knee? 5-7 degrees cephalic 1" distal to medial epicondyle
What does the weight bearing projection of the kneed show? joint spaces
Where is the fibula and patella viewed on lateral oblique projection of the knee? superimposed on the lateral half of femur and tibia?
What is shown on a medial oblique of the knee? tibiofibular joint space and fibula head
For a PA Axial projection of the intercondylar fossa how many degrees do you flex the knee? 70 degrees
For a PA Axial projection of the intercondylar fossa where do you center the CR? Perpendicular to the lowerleg entering the midpoint of the ir
For a lateral projection of the patella how much do you flex the knee? 5-10 degrees
How do you position a patient for a PA projection of the patella? prone with heel rotated 5-10 degrees laterally with CR entering mid popliteal area
Using the merchant method how many degrees do you flex the knees? 40 degrees
Where is the CR directed when using the merchant method 30 degrees caudad entering the patellofemoral joint
Where do you direct the CR for the Settegast method? depending on knee angulation usally 15-20 degees cephalic entering knee joint space
How do you position the patient and the IR for an AP projection of the proximal femur? Place IR at the level of the ASIS to include the hip joint and rotate the limb 15-20 degree internally to place femoral necks in profile
How do you position the patient and the IR for an AP projection of the distal femur? place IR 2" below knee joint and rotate limb internally a little to place epicondyles parallel with IR
How do you position the patient and the IR for a lateral projection of the distal femur? place IR 2" below the knee adjust patient and pelvis to a true lateral postion, flex knee 45 degrees and place epicondyle perpendicular to the IR
How do you position the patient and the IR for a lateral projection of the proximal femur? place patient on side, place the IR @ the level of the ASIS and adjust pelvis 10-15 degrees posteriorly to prevent superimposition
Where do you center the CR for a PA projection of the Hand? 3rd MCP joint
Where you center the CR for the lateral projection of the hand 2nd MCP joint
Where do you center the CR for a finger? To the PIP joint of the affected digit?
Where do you center the CR for a thumb? TO the MCP joint
Where do you center the CR for a lateral projection of a toe? TO PIP joint
Where do you center the CR for PA Wrist? Midcarpal area
Where do you center the Cr for a Lateral Wrist? Perpendicular to the wrist joint
To demonstrated the scaphoid who do you position your hand? in ulnar deviation, this corrects foreshortening
How is the CR directed for PA scaphoid projection? perpendicular to scaphoid and sometimes angled 10-15 degrees to clear delineation
What is the stecher method? 20 degrees angulation of wrist or CR directed 20 degrees cephalic at scaphoid
How do you x-ray the carpal canal? with wrist stressed the central ray enters the hand 20-35 degrees toward forearm or tangential view where the CR enters perpendicular to the midpoint of the wrist
How do you position the arm for a medial oblique projection of the elbow? extend limp in AP position and then pronate hand?
What does the medial oblique projection of the elbow show? The coronoid process
How do you position the arm for a lateral oblique elbow? rotate the arm 45 degrees laterally
What does the lateral oblique projection of the elbow show? The radial head, neck and tuberosity free from superimposition
When is the coyle method used? When the patient can not extend arm in oblique positions to demonstrate the coronoid process and radial head
For the axiolateral projection of the elbow where do you direct the CR to demonstrate the radial head 45 degrees cephalic at the elbow
For the axiolateral projection of the elbow where do you direct the CR to demonstrate the coronoid process 45 degrees caudad at the elbow
How do you postion the patient and IR for an upright AP projection of the humerus? Place IR 1 1/2" above the head of the humerus, abduct arm and supinate hand, make sure epicondyles are a parallel with IR
How do you position the patient for a lateral projection of the humerus? Flex arm 90 degrees and place anterior hand on hip
Where do you cent the CR for the shoulder? 1" inferior to the coracoid process
In the external rotation of the shoulder what is seen? the greater tubercle in profile
In the internal rotation of the shoulder what is seen? the lesser tubercle in profile
Where do you center the CR on posterior oblique of the shoulder (grashey)? 2" inferior and 2" medial to superolateral border of shoulder
How do you position a patient for a transthorcic lateral projection of the shoulder? turn patient laterally, affected arm down and unaffected arm raised above head.
Where is the CR centered on trasthoracic projection of the shoulder? entering the midcoronal plane at the level of the surgical neck
What do you do if the patient can not elevate the unaffected arm for a transthoracic projection of the shoulder? angle the CR 10-15 cephalic
What breathing technique is used for a transthoracic view of the shoulder full inspiration or slow deep breathing
What does the inferosuperior axial projection of the shoulder show? hill-sachs defect: wedge shaped compression fx
How do you postion the patient for an inferosuperior axial projection of the shoulder? supine, externally rotate arm, and abduct arm
How do you position a patient for a scapular Y view? RAO or LAO with affected arm centered, 45-60 degree oblique
What does the scapular Y view show? an oblique shoulder or dislocations
Where do you center the CR for scapular Y view? at the scapulohumeral joint
Where do you direct the CR for an AP axial view of the clavicle? 0-15 degrees for the standing lordotic and 15-30 degrees for the supine position
Where do direct the CR for a PA projection of the clavicle? 15-30 caudad
How do you position a patient for the AP scapula projection? upright or supine with the arm raised with elbow flexed
What breathing technique is used for the AP scapula projection? Slow breathing to obliterate lung detail
Created by: kshum