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Junior C. Geography

JC Geography Revision

The _____________ _________ Fault is an area where earthquakes occur. San Andreas
Name 3 parts of an earthquake zone? Focus, Epicentre, Plates colliding.
Name an area of the world where plates separate? Mid Atlantic.
Name a volcanic island that results from plates separating? Iceland.
What can you say about the core of the earth? Solid, extremely hot, made up of nickel and iron.
Finish the sentence. There are plates that separate, collide and________ ________ ___ ______. Slide past one another.
Name 3 types of Volcano? Active, Dormant, Extinct
Pick the correct answer. Fold mountains are created by great pressure/heat/ both heat and pressure. A Great pressure.
Name the 3 main rock types? Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic.
How are Igneous rocks formed? When magma cools either quickly or slowly
Give an example of an Igneous rock? Granite and Basalt
How are Sedimentary rocks formed? Compressed remains of sand grains or the remains of sea creatures over time.
Give an example of a Sedimentary rock Sandstone Limestone
How are Metamorphic rocks formed? Igneous rocks or Sedimentary rocks where changed to Metamorphic by great heat or pressure or both.
Limestone changes to__________________. Marble
Sandstone changes to ___________. Quartz Quartzite
What are the three stages of a River? Youth Maturity and Old Age
What Valley Shape is Associated with the Upper Course (Young Stage) of a River? V-Shaped
How would you describe the Valley Shape of a Mature section of a river. Valley Trough, wide floor and fairly gentle sides.
What stage of of the river profile would you associate this picture with:<<c9u1x0 Old Age (Lower Course)
How are "V-Shaped" valleys Formed? There are 4 Stages: Vertical Erosion, Weathering, Gravity (causing Mass Movement) and Transport.
What forms when a young river cannot move bits of High Ground in its way? Interlocking Spurs Form.
How are waterfalls formed? Waterfalls form when a band of hard rock lies on softer rock. The softer rock erodes.
What are the main features of a mature river? 1) Wide valley Floor. 2) Gentle slopes at sides of valley. 3) Rivers meander (bend). 4) River erosion on outside bank. 5) River deposition on inside of meander.
What does the old stage of a river look like? Flood Plains, Levees, Ox-bow Lakes and Deltas.
How are Ox-Bow lakes formed? 1) Erosion. 2) Narrow neck worn away. 3) Levee deposits seal off lake.
Name 2 processes of erosion by rivers at their youthful stage. 1) Hydraulic action: force of moving water. 2) Abrasion: erosion by the river load. 3) Attrition: erosion of the river load. 4) Solution: chemical erosion.
Why are dams built? 1) Hydroelectric power. 2) Artifical Lakes for Water storage (or water sports).
Give three ways people use rivers. 1) Fishing 2) Sports 3) Hydroelectricity 4) Source of Water 2) Sports (canoeing) 3) Hydroelectricity (creation of electricity) 4) Source of water
Name a type of sea erosion. 1) Abrasion 2) Hydraulic Action 3) Compressed Air 4) Attrition. 5) Solution
Name a country that exports oil. 1) Saudi Arabia. 2) Iran. 3) Russia. 2) Iran 3) Russia
How are sea cliffs formed? Erosion
List 4 ways people interact with the sea. 1.) Groynes 2) Marram Grass 3) Gabions 4) Boulders
How does the sea transport? Longshore drift
List four examples of sea erosion. Blow holes Arch, Stack, Sea Cave, stump
What is a bay? A bay is a large curved opening into the coast.
What is the name of the debris carried by the sea? The Load.
Name 3 forms of coastal defence. Groynes, Gabions, Marram Grass and Large boulders.
Name one feature of sea deposition. 1)Beach 2) Tombolo 3)
What is compressed air (in relation to sea erosion)? Waves crashing against the rocks and the air causes the rock to crack and break.
Describe the longshore drift. Longshore drift is the process of sea transportation. 1. Heavier rocks are pushed up the beach by the swash. 2. Material is sorted and finer snad are dragged down the beach by the backwash. 3. It is transported in a Zig-Zag manner.
How are bays and headlands formed? These are examples of Sea Erosion. 1. They form when areas of hard and soft rock lie side by side. 2. The sea cannot erode the hard rock as much as the softer rock. 3. This leaves areas of high rock jutting out to sea.
Give a definition of a bay? A bay is a large curved opening into the coast.
What type of resource are Fish? Fish are a renewable resource as they can renew their numbers through breeding.
List 3 different types of equipment used to find fish. 1. Echo sounder. 2. Sonar equipment. 3. Radar.
Over fishing can lead to ______ of stocks. Over fishing can lead to depletion of stocks.
List four features of sea deposition. 1. Beaches. 2. Spits. 3. Lagoons. 4. Bars.
Name 3 problems with burning fossil fuels. 1. Global warming. 2. Shortages can lead to conflicts (Energy War). 3. Air can become polluted.
Name some benefits of having gas fields in Ireland. 1. Can create jobs and benefit the economy. 2. Gas can become more available. 3. Reduces Irelands dependance on the importation of Oil.
Give one example of Gas fields in Ireland. 1. Corrib gas fields. 2. Kinsale Head gas field.
What does the term "finite resource" mean? This resource will soon run out.
Name one use of oil. 1. Electricity production. 2. Plastic. 3. Transport.
What problems are associated with the use of Gas and Oil? 1. Carbon dioxide contributes to Global Warming. 2. Oil spillages can lead to pollution of beaches. 3. Oil and gas are finite resources.
How much all does the world use every second? 140,000 litres. (mostly in the West).
Give a reason why over fishing occurs. 1. Super trawlers (a very large boat) can collects fish rapidly in vast quantities which can be stored in massive fridges . 2. Modern Equipment like sonar, trawl nets, powerful motorised cranes and winches have made trawlers more efficient.
Give one activity which can be done to save fish stocks. Setting up Fishery Exclusion Zones. These forbidden fishing areas allow for species to thrive.
What type of activity is fishing? Primary Activity.
Why are fish easy to catch? Because they travel together and group to spawn.
Describe two steps that are being taken to limit over fishing. 1. Fishing Fleets have been reduced. 2. Exclusion zones have been set up for endangered species. For example, parts of the Irish sea have been closed to Cod Fishing.
What is a Quota? A Quota is a set limit on fish catches set up by the European Union to prevent overfishing.
What type of fish are easy to catch in Ireland? Big shoals of Cod are easy to catch, they give birth in the Irish Sea each spring. The are easy to catch as they swim slowly and in large groups.
What are the methods used to preserve fish stocks? 1. Reduce the size of the fishing fleet. 2. Introduction of Quotas(limits). 3. Banning of fishing endangered species. 4. Fishery exclusion zones have been set up. 5. Fishery protection vessels prevent poaching.
What factors contribute to over-fishing? 1. Super trawlers take in vast catches. 2. Modern equipment makes it hard for fish to escape. 3. Easy targets: certain fish are easy to catch.
Where are the main oil fields in the middle east? Qatar and Kuwait.
Name two gas fields off the Irish coast. Corrib Gas Field and the Kinsale Head Gas Field.
List some of the benesfits of the Kinsale Gas Field. 1. Used to generate electricity in Aghada. 2. Supplies several small towns. 3. Provides 20% of Irelands energy needs.
What are Multinational Companies? (Oil and Gas Production) Large wealthy American or European companies that invest in the exploration of Oil or Gas in other countries.
How should you answer questions on Images (cartoons)?<<v1rrz5 1. Give your Statement 2. Give evidence from the cartoon to back up what you have stated 3. Say what you see
What is the Greenhouse Effect? 1. The sun heats the Earth with Short-Wave Radiation. 2. The Earth absorbs this and releases Long-Wave Radiation. 3. The Long-Wave Radiation is absorbed by Green House Gases (Carbon Dioxide). Keeping more heat on the planet. This is the Greenhouse Effect.
Why is the Greenhouse Effect important? The "trapped" heat from the Greenhouse effect provides enough heat energy for Plants and Animals to thrive on the planet.
Why are places nearer the Equator are warmer than places far from the Equator? Places near the Equator get the sunlight directly overhead. Far from the Equator the sunlight hits the ground at an angle so there is less heat per area.
Places in [...] latitudes are [...] than places with high latitudes. Places in low latitudes are than places with high latitudes.
List 3 human activities that cause Global Warming. 1. Burning Fossil Fuels: releasing CO2. 2. Deforestation: Cutting down trees which absorb CO2. 3. Ariculture: Methane produced from Livestock and CO2 released from Machinery.
List 3 effects of Global Warming. 1. Rising Temperatures: could melt the polar ice caps. Sea levels would rise and flood Cities near Sea Level. 2. Climate Change: increase in extreme weather events. 3. Increase in Desertification: the spread of deserts such as the Sahara.
List 3 ways Global Warming can be reduced. 1. Conserve Energy: so less (Carbon Dioxide) CO2 is released. 2. Use renewable energy instead of fossil fuels. 3. Plant more trees: trees absorb CO2
What does "Relief" mean in relation to climate? Relief means the shape of the lands surface.
In the northern hemishere, south facing slopes are usually [...] than north-facing slopes. In the northern hemishere, south facing slopes are usually warmer than north-facing slopes.
Give 3 reasons why in the Northern Hemisphere, south facing slopes are usually warmer than north facing slopes. 1. Sunlight hits are more direct angles. 2. Longer periods of daily sunshine. 3. Sheltered from cold northerly winds.
What does altitude refer to? Altitude means the height above sea level.
What effect does Altitude have on climate? The higher the place is the cooler the climate. (Snow on Mountain tops).
The higher the altitude the cooler the place. Explain why. 1. The atmosphere acts like a blanket. The higher you go the smaller the blanket. 2. High mountains are windier leading to a wind chill factor.
List three factors that effect climate. 1. Latitude: the further from the equator the cooler the climate. 2. Distance from Seas and Oceans. 3. Prevailing Air Masses or Winds. 4. Altitude: snow on mountain tops. 5. Relief: shape of lands surface.
How does Latitude effect Climate? The higher the Latitude the lower the temperature because the Sunlight is spread over a larger area.
Wind blow from areas of [...] pressure to areas of [...] pressure. Wind blow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
How do global wind patterns effect climate? 1. Prevailing wind patterns and ocean currents bring climatic conditions to an area. 2. Warm air generates Low Pressure. 3. Cold air generates High Pressure. 4. Wind blows from High Pressure to Low Pressure.
Northerly air masses are [...] because they come from [...] climates. Northerly air masses are cooler because they come from colder climates.
Southerly air masses are [...] because they come from [...] latitudes. Southerly air masses are warm because they come from warmer lower latitudes.
Does the sun heat the Earth evenly? No. Direct sun rays hit the equator More Heat Slanted sun rays hit the poles Less Heat
How does air move when heated? Convection Currents. Hot air rises.
When air is heated the air [...] leaving [...] air and [...] pressure. When air is heated the air rises leaving less dense air and Low pressure.
When cool air [...] you get [...] pressure. When cool air presses down you get high pressure.
At high pressure you get [...] clouds and [...] weather. At high pressure you get no clouds and sunny weather.
At low pressure you have [...] clouds. At low pressure you have many clouds.
At a latitude of 0° also known as the [...] you get [...] At a latitude of 0° also known as the equator you get low pressure
At a latitude of 30°N also known as the [...] latitudes you get areas of [...] pressure. At a latitude of 30°N also known as the horse latitudes you get areas of high pressure.
At Latitudes close to 0° (the [...] ) are known as the [...] you get an area of [...] Pressure. At Latitudes close to 0° (the equator ) are known as the Doldrums you get an area of Low Pressure.
At latitudes around 30° N or S (also known as [...] Latitudes) you get areas of [...] Pressure. At latitudes around 30° N or S (also known as Horse Latitudes) you get areas of Hight Pressure.
At Latitudes of 60° North and South you get areas of [...] Pressure. At Latitudes of 60° North and South you get areas of Low Pressure.
At the North and South poles you get areas of [...] pressure. At the North and South poles you get areas of high pressure.
What is the Coriolis Effect? As the earth rotates, the air above the surface appears to move.
What are prevailing winds? Prevailing winds are the most common winds for an area.
Created by: MrCahill



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