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Oral Comp Questions

SHSU LIDA V QUESTIONS

QuestionAnswer
. Identify and describe at least six guidelines for the effective use of reinforcement. • Set an easily achieved initial criterion for reinforcement • Use high quality reinforcers of sufficient magnitude • Use varied reinforcers
. Identify and describe at least six guidelines for the effective use of reinforcement. • Use a direct rather than indirect reinforcement contingency whenever possible. • Combine response prompts and reinforcement. • Reinforce each occurrence of the behavior initially, then gradually thin reinforcement schedule.
. Identify and describe at least six guidelines for the effective use of reinforcement. • Use contingent praise and attention • Gradually increase the response-to-reinforcement delay • Gradually shift from contrived to naturally occurring reinforcers
Punishment can be beneficial by: • Teaching us not to repeat responses that cause us harm. • More immediate suppression of an occurrence of behavior. (EX. SIB)
The distinction between punishing a person and punishing a behavior is important because: Punishment is a response→consequence contingency that suppresses the future frequency of similar responses.
The distinction between punishing a person and punishing a behavior is important because: You have only punished fooling around IF going to the principle’s office decreases the future frequency the kid fools around. We are only punishing the behavior to make it change, not the person
4 guidelines for the effective use of punishment: • Select effective and appropriate punishers: • If problem behavior consists of a response chain, deliver the punisher as early in the response sequence as possible. • Punish each occurrence of the behavior.
4 guidelines for the effective use of punishment: • Gradually shift to an intermittent schedule of punishment if possible. • Use mediation with a response-to-punishment delay
4 guidelines for the effective use of punishment: • Supplement punishment with complementary interventions, in particular, differential reinforcement, extinction, and antecedent interventions. • Watch and be prepared for unwanted side effects. • Record, graph, and evaluate data daily.
• Select effective and appropriate punishers: (A) conduct punisher assessments to identify the least intrusive punisher that can be applied consistently and safely;
• Select effective and appropriate punishers: (B) use punishers of sufficient quality and magnitude; (C) use a variety of punishers to combat habituation and increase the effectiveness of less intrusive punishers.
5 side effects of using punishment: • Emotional and aggressive reactions to aversive stimulation • Escape and avoidance behaviors • Behavioral contrast • The model of undesirable behavior • Overuse of punishment
Behavioral contrast – reduced responding from punishment in one situation may be accompanied by an increased responding in situations in which responses go unpunished.
4 Factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment • Immediacy • Magnitude/Intensity • Schedule • Reinforcement for Target Behavior • Each occurrence of behavior is followed by punishing consequence • Reinforcement is available for alternative behaviors
example of an SD SD: An antecedent stimulus that evokes behavior because it has been correlated with the availability of reinforcement. EX. Therapist saying to child, “Touch STAR,” when there is an array of pictures on the table in a DTT session.
example of an EO EO: Increases the momentary effectiveness of a reinforcer, is dynamic and always changing.) EX. Child is hungry because he hasn’t eaten and you are using very small pieces of food as a reinforcer.
How are SD and EO the same? SAME: Both increase the probability that a behavior might occur; both must come before reinforcement is given.
How are SD and EO the Different? DIFFERENT: An EO increases the momentary effectiveness of a stimulus change as a reinforcer, which in turn makes the SD more likely to evoke behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus change in the past.
4-term contingency: EO→SD→R→SR+
Discuss the role of SD control and EO manipulation in teaching a child with autism functional communication. when teaching a child with autism functional communication, the EO is the motivation the child needs to respond to the SD, which evokes the behavior of saying the sound you are trying to get the child to say.
Define extinction. Extinction: Is a technical term that applied behavior analysts should use only to identify the procedure of withholding reinforcers that maintain behavior.
Difference between extinction of a negatively and positively reinforced response: Positive reinforcement: placed on extinction when those behaviors do not produce the reinforcer. Negative reinforcement: placed on extinction (ex. Escape extinction) when those behaviors do not produce a removal of the aversive stimulus.
What type of behavior is extinction not an appropriate intervention? Extinction should not be used for behavior that are likely to be imitated by others or for behaviors that ware harmful to self or others.
Created by: larapeake