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Resp. Anatomy & Phys

Respiratory Anatomy & Physiology

What are conducting airways? connect atmospheric air with the gas-exchange membrane of the lungs. They DO NOT participate in gas exchange.
Upper Airways Consist of nose, oral Cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Larynx marks the transition Between upper and lower Airways
What function does your nose do? “air-conditioning” and filtering device. Most breathing takes place through nose Special structures in nose that allows for filtering, warming and humidification functions.
Pharynx Space behind the nasal cavities that extends down to larynx. stems from Greek language meaning “throat”
Nasopharynx portion behind nasal cavities that extends down to soft palate
Oropharynx space behind oral cavity, bounded by soft palate above and the base of the tongue below.
Larynx Cartilaginous, cylindrical structure that acts as a valve on top of the trachea “voice box”…because it contains the vocal cords. Main cartilage is in middle of larynx – Thyroid cartilage (Adam’s Apple)
Vocal Cords Protected by Epiglottis
Croup laryngotracheobronchitis inflamed/infected upper airway
Trachea Begins at the level of the 6th cervical vertebra and extends for about 11 cm to the 5th thoracic vertebra. Divides into right and left main stem bronchi, one for each lung The point of division is called Carina
Carina Bifurcation of two main stems. Straighter right main stem Due to presence of heart
Conducting zone no gas exchange occurs…strictly provide passageway for air movement
Respiratory Zone gas exchange occurs
Alveoli site at which gas exchange occurs (A-C) Membrane also marks the beginning of Respiratory zone
Type I Alveoli Cells comprise most of alveolar surface, flat
Type II Alveoli Cells blunt projections on alveolar surfaces, contain internal organelles including lamellar bodies. Responsible for surfactant production – surface tension reducing agent
VE defined as the volume of air entering or leaving the lung each minute. Comprised of amount of volume moving in and out of patient’s lungs with each breath, tidal volume (Vt) and the rate at which this volume is moving, respiratory rate (f) VE = Vt x f
Vt tidal volume
f respiratory rate
Alveolar Ventilation (VA) Amount of gas entering or leaving the ALVEOLI per minute. Effective portion of VE – in the sense that ONLY VA takes part in respiration Therefore if VD and VE are known, VA is easily calculated VA = VE – VD
Hyperventilation or overbreathing is the state of breathing faster or deeper than normal, causing excessive expulsion of circulating carbon dioxide or CO2 and low levels of PCO2 in the blood. PCO2 < 35mmHg
Hypoventilation If VA removes less PCO2 than the body produces, alveolar and blood PCO2 rise, causing a state of _______. PCO2 > 45mmHg
Normal PCO2 35 – 45mmHg
Inverse relationship between VA and PCO2 As VA goes up…blood levels of PCO2 will go down. As VA goes down…blood levels of PCO2 will rise.
Created by: 725650999