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Memory

Exam One

questionanswer
What experiment did Ebbinghaus do? he taught a group of ppl 'nonsense' syllables (gok, yar, ceb) and would have those ppl recite as many as they could from their short term and long term memories
how many 'nonsense words' could ppl remember on average? seven
how much information do we retain just by paying attention to something? thirty percent
what are the three main tasks of memory? encode, store and retrieve
what are the parts of the memory? sensory, STM, LTM
brief vision, touch, taste, sound sensory memory
capacity, duration, and storage are all limited short term memory
Who studied the parts of the memory? Atkinson and Shiffrin
in STM: to remember the first things in a list primacy effect
in STM: to remember the last things in list recency effect
in STM: your brain is likely to: remember unusual things, and try to find groupings in order to help remember things
in STM: most ppl can retain 7 +/- 2 'chunks' of information
in LTM: what I could verbalize and repeat back to someone declarative
what are the three types of long-term memory? declarative, procedural, and episodic
in LTM: things that are easier to show than tell, like tying your shoe procedural
in LTM: you can say it, but you can't explain really how you feel, it's more about the feelings TO YOU episodic
in LTM, which is most permanent? episodic
in LTM: which is least permanent? declarative
in LTM: a grouping of knowledge is know as a schema
schemas are what cause us to form stereotypes
what is the first schema ever to be developed in most people's lives? the gender schema (girl = pink, boy = blue)
when to memories start? usually around 4 yrs.
why do memories not start until age 4? maybe because of your brain structure development - shemas have not yet been developed
what does freud say about memories not starting until age 4? he thinks it is because those memories are simply repressed because they were so traumatic.
maybe it didn't start until age 4 because we could not speak yet... verbal nature of memory yet this theory is questioned because what is stopping us from remembering procedural and episodic memories?
sometimes our brian will 'overwrite' memories replace "puppy" with "my dog rex" or your grade school crush with "bob"
what is a special type of memory? flashbulb memory
what causes a flashbulb memory to remain so vivid? generational (9/11), rehearsal (9/11 on the news), or social desirability (like gossip)
what are some problems with your memory? distortion, construction, and memory disorders
what is distortion? to alter what is remembered
what is construction? to add information that was never really there
Four common memory disorders antegrade amnesia, retrograde amnesia, korsakoff syndrome, and alzheimer
what is Antegrade amnesia? forgetting what happened after an accident - not able to create new memories
what is retrograde amnesia? forgetting what happened before an accident
who is an example of antegrade amnesia, though what was he still able to do? HM was still able to learn how to play the piano (procedural memories)
what is Korsakoff Syndrome? the syndrome that when you drink too much it can cause you to lose memory
what are some ways to help you remember things? good health, pay attention, rehearse, chunk information, organization, enactment, use cues, elaboration, imagery, and mnemonics
How many times do most ppl have to rehearse something before it becomes a part of their LTM? 3-7 times
what are cues? lists, calendars
what is an example of imagery? the Loci Method (the house)
what are examples of mnemonics? rhymes, acronyms (ROY G BIV), acrostics, peg words
Ebbinghaus's forgetting curve showed that directly after encoding something, a person would remember most of it... but as time went on, we would remember less and less, until it leveled out to about a 30% retention rate.
Created by: kelseyrae