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Ch. 6: Communication

Understanding students with Communication disorders

speech disorder difficulty producing sounds, disorders of voice quality, or fluency of speech (stuttering)
language disorder a difficulty in receiving, understanding, and forming ideas and information
receptive language disorder having a difficulty in receiving or understanding information
expressive language disorder difficulty in forming ideas and information
cleft palate or lip a medical condition where a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or upper lip
dialect regional variation of a language
speech oral expression of language
language a symbolic system for communicating- it is structured, shared, and rule governed
phonology the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words
phonemes individual sounds of speech and the way in which they are produced based on their placement in a word or syllable
morphology the system that governs the structure of words
morpheme the smallest meaningful unit of speech
syntax the rules for stringing words together to form sentences.
semantics the meaning of an expression
pragmatics the use of communication within context
social interaction theories emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions
articulation a speaker's production of individual or sequenced sounds
substitutions when a speaker substitutes one sound for another
omissions occur when a child leaves a phoneme out of a word
additions occur when students pace a vowel between two consonants
distortion modifications to the production of a phoneme in a word
apraxia a motor speech disorder- disrupts the way in which a person plans to produce speech
pitch altered by the tension and size of the vocal folds, health of the larynx, and the location of the larynx
duration the length of time that a speech sound requires
resonance determined by the way in which the tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth, and nose
intensity loudness or softness- based on the perception of the listener; determined by the air pressure coming through the vocal folds from the lungs
hypernasality when air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity on sounds other than the three it is supposed to- /m/, /n/, /ng/
hyponasality when air cannot pass through the nose and therefore it comes out of the mouth
fluency the rate and rhythm of speaking
specific language impairment a language disorder that has no identifiable cause- a person with apparently normal development in all other areas
organic disorders disorders that are caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person
functional disorders disorders with no identifiable organic or neurological cause
congenital disorders occurs at or before birth
acquired disorder occurs well after birth
oral motor exam examination of the appearance, strength, and range of motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth, and jaw
bilingual refers to someone who uses two languages equally
bidialectal refers to someone who uses two variations of a language
System for Augmenting Language (SAL) focuses on augmented input of language
Created by: lbash1