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AP Psych Chapter 18

Social Psychology

Social Psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory suggests that we explain behavior by crediting either the situation or a person's disposition
fundamental attribution error the tendency of observers to overestimate the effect of a person's disposition on their behavior, and discount the effects of the situation
attitude feelings that predispose people to respond to events in a particular way - often based on beliefs
foot-in-the-door phenomenon the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply with a subsequent larger request
cognitive dissonance theory the theory that we act to reduce discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts conflict
conformity adjusting behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence influence resulting from pressure to gain or avoid disapproval
informational social influence influence resulting from the willingness to accept others' opinions
social facilitation increased ability to perform simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social loafing the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort towards the collective goal than they would if they were individually accountable
deindividuation the loss of self-restraint or awareness in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization the intensification of a group's beliefs after discussion within the group
groupthink the mode of thinking that occurs when a group's desire for harmony overrides realistic decision-making
prejudice an unjustifiable attitude towards a group and its members
stereotype an overgeneralized belief about a group of people
ingroup people with whom one shares a common identity
outgroup those perceived as outsiders that don't fit in to one's ingroup
ingroup bias the tendency to favor one's own group
scapegoat theory the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
just-world phenomenon the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that most people get what they deserve
aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-agression principle the principle that frustration creates anger, which can be released in aggression
conflict a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap a situation in which the conflicting parties become caught in mutually-destructive behavior by each pursuing their own interests
mere exposure effect the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli or people increases liking of them
passionate love an aroused state of intense absorption in another
companionate love the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those essential to our lives
equity a relationship in which the people involved receive what they put in to sustain it
self-disclosure revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other people are present
social exchange theory the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process that aims to maximize benefits and minimize costs
reciprocity norm an expectation that people will help, and not hurt, those who have helped them
social-responsibility norm an expectation that people will help those dependent on them
superordinate goals shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to reduce international tensions
norms social conventions that describe how people ought to behave
roles places individuals occupy in a society
self-fulfilling prophecy a belief or anxious thought that comes true through submission to its perceived inevitability
door-in-the-face phenomenon a strategy in which a bargainer gets someone to acquiesce to a small request after turning down a large one
Created by: Kingsclass