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CTOWN Lecture 11

Developmental Psychology

What does 'development' refer to? sequence of age related changes from conception to death
What is the prenatal period? from conception to birth; rapid development early stages but tapers off before birth
What is a Zygote? III. Single cell organism formed by union of sperm & ovum IV. Contains genetic information – for body to develop
What are the THREE stages of Prenatal Development? I. Germinal stage (first 2 weeks following conception) II. Embryonic stage (2 weeks – end 2nd month) III. Fetal stage (two months – birth)
What environmental factors affect prenatal development? maternal nutrition, maternal illness, prenatal health care, maternal drug use
What is motor development? Progression and muscular coordination needed for physical activities
What is Cephalocaudal trend? II. Control of upper body regions before lower body regions III. E.g., infants crawl with arms before using legs
What is Proximodistal trend? I. Motor development proceeds in centre-outward direction II. Control over torso before extremities III. E.g., reach for items by twisting body; then extend arms
What is Temperament? Characteristic mood, activity level and emotional reactivity
How can Temperament be investigated? I. Longitudinal design o A– sensitive at detecting development o D – costly, time-consuming, attrition II. Cross-sectional design o Advantages – quick, inexpensive, no attrition effects o Disadvantages – less sensitive at detecting development
What is Attachment? Emotional bonds of affection between infants and caregivers  Initial attachments to mother not instantaneous  BUT at 6-8 months separation anxiety – emotional distress
Explain Secure attachment. i. Explore room, toys with mother present (secure base) ii. Become visibly upset when she leaves iii. Quickly calm when she returns
Explain Anxious-Ambivalent attachment. i. Anxious in mother’s presence ii. Visibly upset when she leaves iii. Do not calm upon her return
Explain Anxious-Avoidant attachment. i. Explore room, toys with mother present ii. Not distressed when she leaves iii. Following separation actively avoids mother
What are Freud's and Ericksen's views on personality development? Freud - personality developed by age 5 Enricksen - childhood does shape personality, but personality continues to evolve
What is the Stage Theory? 1. Individuals progress through specific stages in set order because each new stage builds on previous stage 2. Progress through stages related to age 3. Development marked by discontinuities that usher in transitions in behaviour
Explain Trust vs. Mistrust I. Infants whose basic needs (e.g., food, warmth) are met by caregiver develop a sense of trust in others
Explain Autonomy vs. shame & doubt II. The toddler tries to learn independence (e.g., feeding, toilet training) and self-confidence – if successful then children acquire sense of autonomy
Explain Initiative vs. guilt III. The child learns to initiate his or her own activities; conflicts with parents begins IV. Over-controlling parents may instil feelings of guilt; low self-esteem may result
Explain Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority V. The child tries to develop physical, cognitive & social skills VI. Those who succeed, value achievement and develop a sense of competence
What is Cognitive Development? Transitions in patterns of thinking, reasoning, memory and problem solving
Children progress in thinking through complementary process of... o Assimilation – interpretation of new experiences in terms of existing mental structures (e.g., all round objects [balls, apples, tomatoes] are balls) o Accommodation – changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences (e.g. balls are balls
What are the FOUR proposed stages of children's cognitive development? (1) 1. Sensorimotor period (birth – 2 years) o Major cognitive tasks include sensory activities (e.g., seeing; hearing) & motor activities (e.g., kicking legs; sucking thumb; reaching)
What are the FOUR proposed stages of children's cognitive development? (2) 2. Preoperational period (2 – 7 years) o Development of language – can represent thought using symbols & words o Limitations of preoperational thought I. Conservation II. Centration III. Irreversibility IV. Egocentrism V. Animism
What are the FOUR proposed stages of children's cognitive development? (3) 3. Concrete operational period (7 – 11 years) o Can perform operations on tangible objects & events o Can master centration, reversibility, conservation o Develop new problem solving abilities
What are the FOUR proposed stages of children's cognitive development? (4) 4. Formal operational period (11 years – onwards) o Develop systematic problem solving abilities (earlier stages associated with trial-and-error approaches) o Can apply mental operations to abstract concepts
What were the limitations of Piaget's Theory? I. Did not pay much attention to individual differences II. Uniform progression through stages at same ages, BUT… o Sequence of stages seems invariant o Large cultural differences in ages for each stage
What is Preconventional Morality? decisions based on rules made by others, eg. Heinz shouldn't steal drug because he might be sent to jail as a result
What is Conventional Morality? based on internalised standards derived from interactions with others eg. Heinz should steal the drug because his wife will admire him
What is Postconventional Morality? based on own abstract principles about right and wrong eg. Heinz should not steal the drug, it's bad for society if people steal every time they get desperate
What are the strengths of Kohlberg's Theory? o Progress in moral reasoning tied to cognitive development o Evidence for proscribed order
What are the limitations of Kohlberg's Theory? o Some individuals fit into more than adjacent category o Most evidence on how Heinz dilemma resolved; little emphasis on real-world applications o Cultural differences
What is identity diffusion? VI. Refusal to confront challenges of life (no identity crisis) VII. Lack of direction related to social & psychological problems (e.g., depression)
What is identify foreclosure? I. Some commitment to vision, values & goals II. But…typically adopt those of parents or society
What is identity moratorium? I. Delayed commitment; experiment with various ideologies II. Associated with self-doubt and/or confusion
What is identity achievement? I. Sense of self & direction after experimentation with alternative possibilities II. Commitment to self is strong but can change III. Associated with positive outcomes (e.g., high self-esteem)
Created by: 523584001