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MGMT Test 3

QuestionAnswer
The excitement, feeling of anxiety, and/or physical tension that occurs when the demands or stressors placed on an individual are thought to exceed the person's ability to cope. stress
negative stress distress
Breathing and rate rates increase, brain wave activity goes up, hearing and sight become momentarily more acute stress reactions
the biochemical and bodily changes that represent a natural reaction to an environmental stressor. fight-or-flight response
perception, past experiences, social support, and individual differences influences on stress
the process by which people select, organize, interpret, and respond to information perception
workload, job conditions, role conflict and ambiguity, career development, interpersonal relations, workplace aggression, and conflict between work and life roles work-related stressors
This exist when the demands of the job exceed the capacity of the individual to meet all of the demands adequately role overload
leaders doing the work of their subordinates micromanage
temperature extreme, loud noises, too much or too little lighting, radiation, and air pollution stressful working conditions
differing expectations of or demands on a person at work that become excessive role conflict
This occurs when an employee is uncertain about assigned job duties and responsibilities. role ambiguity
job security, promotions,transfers, and developmental opportunities stressors related to career development
rudeness, lack of regard for one another and the violation of workplace norms for mutual respect workplace incivility
bullying, sexual harassment, workplace violence, and aggression toward the organization itself workplace aggression
tensions, anxieties, and conflicts that stem from pressures and demands in people's personal lives life stressors
What are the three areas that severe stress impact physiological, emotional, and behavioral
sweating, hot and cold spells, breathing difficulties, muscular tension physiological effects of stress
anger, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, poor intellectual functioning emotional effects of stress
poor performance, absenteeism, high accident rates, high turnover rates behavioral effects of stress
a psychological disorder brought on, for example, by horrible experiences in combat during wartime, acts of violence and terrorism, and the like post-traumatic stress disorder
the adverse effects of working conditions under which strong stressors are perceived as unavoidable and relief from them is interpreted as unavailable job burnout
chronic fatigue, tiredness, and a sense of being physically run down emotional exhaustion
cynicism, negativity, and irritability toward others depersonalization of individuals
the treatment of people as objects depersonalization
social workers, soldiers in war zones, nurses, police officers, and teachers those most vulnerable to job burnout
a person involved in a never ending struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time Type A personality
a person who tends to be easygoing and relaxed, patient, a good listener, and takes a long-range view of things Type B personality
the personality of a person with a cluster of characteristics that includes feeling a sense of commitment, responding to each difficulty as representing a challenge and an opportunity, and perceiving that one has control over one's own life hardy personality
reduces the negative effects of stressful events hardiness
the actions and initiatives that reduce stress by helping the individual understand the stress response, recognize stressors, and use coping techniques to minimize the negative impacts of severe experienced stress stress management
improvements in the physical work environment, job redesign, changes in the workloads and deadlines, changes in work schedules, more flexible hours, and greater level of employee participation ways of modifying work stressors
two major sources of severe stress role ambiguities and role conflicts
a health management initiative that incorporates the components of disease prevention, medical care, self-care, and health promotion wellness program
behaviors that are intended to have the effect of harming a person within or directly related to the organization or the organization itself. workplace aggression
What are the three aggressive workplace behavior categories? hostility, obstructionism, and overt aggression
the assumption that people tend to be motivated by the desire to harm others hostile attribution bias
the assumption the interactions with others are contests to establish dominance versus submissiveness potency bias
individuals think that taking revenge is more important than preserving relationships retribution bias
individuals see those they wish to make targets of aggression as evil, immoral, or untrustworthy derogation of target bias
individuals believe that social customs reflect free will and the opportunity to satisfy their own needs Social discounting bias
repeated and persistent negative actions directed toward one or more individuals that involve a power imbalance and create a hostile work environment workplace bullying
Women are most often the targets of ______. bullying
evidenced by anxiety, excessive worry, disruptive sleep, stress headaches, and racing heart rate. general anxiety disorder
evidenced by loss of concentration, disruptive sleep, obsession over details at work, exhaustion, and diagnosed depression. clincial depression
ganging up by coworkers, subordinates, or superiors to force someone out of the workplace through rumor, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting, and/or isolation. mobbing
unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature sexual harassment
submission to harassment is used as the basis for employment decisions quid pro quo
harassment creates an offensive working environment hostile environment
any act in which a person is abused, threatened, intimidated, or assaulted and that represents an explicit or implicit challenge to the person's safety, well-being, or health at work workplace violence
a continum that ranges from harassment to affression to rage to mayhem. harm model of aggression
violent and threatening behavior, strange behavior, performance problems, interpersonal problems, and at the end of his/her rope warning signs of workplace violence
the rage committed by a spouse, ex-spouse, or current or former boyfriend/girlfriend intimate partner violence
retaliating against the employee's manager or higher levels of leadership aggression toward the organization
a limited number of people who (1) are usually in proximity to each other, (2) use many sensory channels, and (3) are able to provide immediate feedback interpersonal communication
sender and receiver, transmitter and receptors, messages and channels, meaning and feedback elements of interpersonal communication
the means available for sending messages Transmitters
the means available for receiving messages receptors
the sent data and coded symbols that give particular meaning to the data messages
the means by which messages travel from sender to receiver. For ex. air, email via internet, and the telephone. channels
the capacity of a communication approach to transmit cues and provide feedback. media richness
a stimulus, either consciously or unconsciously perceived, that results in a response by the receiver cue
_____ is the highest in media richness face to face dialogue
_____ is the lowest in media richness formal numerical documents
a person's thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and attributes meaning
_____ gives personal, interpreted meaning to messages that are to be sent encoding
_____ gives personal, interpreted meaning to messages that are received decoding
the receiver's response to the message feedback
low adjustment, low sociability, low conscientiousness, low agreeableness, and low intellectual openness personality traits as barriers
perceptual defense, stereotyping, halo effect, projection, and high expectancy effect perceptual errors
any interference with the intended message in the channel noise
the special meaning assigned to words semantics
a person's verbal and nonverbal communication patterns that have become habits language routines
_____ means the sender states something that is believed to be false in order to seriously mislead one or more receivers lying
a wide range of messages that a sender may use between the extremes of lying and complete honesty distortion
the attempt by individuals to manipulate or control the impressions that other form about them. impression management
self-promotion, ingratiation, intimidation, supplication, and exemplification impression management tactics
a process whereby people suspend their defensiveness to enable a free flow of exploration into their own and others' assumptions and beliefs dialogue
confidently expressing what you think, feel, and believe while respecting the right of others to hold different views. assertive communication
communication openness, constructive feedback, appropriate self-disclosure, and active listening factors of ethical dialogue
___ brings out the assumptions, inferences, and interpretations of the parties that form the basis of open messages meta-communication
a questionnaire-based process that gathers structured feedback from a number of people about the competencies and behaviors of an individual or team 360-degree feedback
any information that individuals communicate about themselves to others self-disclosure
___ involves paying attention, withholding judgement, reflecting, clarifying, summarizing, and sharing active listening
people often listen at only ____ efficiency 25%
the process of sending "wordless" messages by means such as facial expressions, gestures, postures, emotional tones of voice, grooming, clothing, colors, and use or type of space nonverbal communication
Proximity, Expressions, Relative orientation, contact, eyes, individual gestures, voice, existence of adapters personal nonverbal cues
____ occurs whenever a message sent by a member of one culture is received and understood by a member of another culture intercultural communication
a set of social managers that seem polite or deceitful depending on one's point of view taarof
the conditions that surround and influence the life of an individual, group, or organization cultural context
The establishment of social trust before engaging in work-related discussions, the high value placed on personal relationships and goodwill, and the importance of the surrounding circumstances during an interaction. high-context culture
high context culture countries China, Korea, and Japan
Directly and immediately addressing the tasks, issues, or problems at hand; the high value placed on personal expertise and performance; and the importance of clear, precise, and speedy interactions. low-context culture
low context culture countries Germany, Switzerland, and the US
___ occurs when individuals believe that only their culture makes sense, has the "right" values, and represents the "right" and logical way to behave Ethnocentrism
Three forms of nonverbal cross-cultural communication chromatics, chronemics, and body language
communication through the use of color chromatics
reflects the use of time in a culture chronemics
things are done linearly, or one activity at a time monochronic time schedule
Northern Europe, Germany, and the U.S. individualistic cultures
people tend to do several things at the same time polychronic time schedule
posture, gestures, eye contact, facial expression, touching, voice pitch and volume, and speaking rate difference body language
the pattern of communication flows, relationships, and understandings developed over time among people, rather than focusing on the individual and whether a specific message is received as intended by the sender interpersonal communication network
includes immediate superiors and subordinates and the superior's superiors and the subordinates' subordinates. vertical networks
includes people in the same department at the same level (peers) and people in different departments at the same level lateral networks
includes customers, suppliers, regulatory agencies, pressure groups, professional peers, and friends external networks
the ability to effectively understand others at work, and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's long term personal and/or organizational goals political skill
networking ability, apparent sincerity, social astuteness, interpersonal influence four dimensions of political skill
the unofficial, and at times confidential, person to person or person to group chain of verbal, or at times e-mail, communication grapevine
the intended pattern and flows of employee related communication vertically and laterally . formal employee network
any number of people who share goals, often communicate with one another over a period of time, and are few enough so that each individual may communicate with all the others, person to person group
____ evolves informally to meet its members' personal security, esteem, and belonging needs friendship group
____ is created by management to accomplish certain organizational goals. task group
develops out of the day to day activities, interactions, and sentiments that the members have for each other. informal group
s small number of employees with complementary competencies who are committed to common performance goals and working relationships for which they hold themselves mutually accountable team
the degree to which its members perceive the group as being competent and able to accomplish work-related tasks, performing important and valuable tasks, and having choice in how they carry out their tasks team empowerment
forming stage, storming stage, norming stage, performing stage, adjourning stage stages of team development
team members often focus on defining goals and developing procedures for performing their jobs forming stage
____ is characterized by conflicts over work, relative priorities of goals, who is to be responsible for what and the directions of the team leader storming stage
member behaviors evolve into a sharing of information, accepting of different options, and attempting to make decisions that may require compromise norming stage
members are willing to risk presenting "wild" ideas without fear of being put down by the team performing stage
the termination of task related behaviors and disengagement from interpersonal behaviors occurs when? adjourning stage
functional teams, problem-solving teams, cross-functional teams, self-managed teams, virtual teams, and global teams types of work related teams
____ includes employees who work together daily on similar tasks and must coordinate their efforts. Ex: marketing, purchasing, production, engineering, finance, auditing, human resources. functional team
a team that has members who focus on a specific issue, develop a potential solution, and can often take action within defined limits problem solving team
a team that has members drawn from various work areas whose goal is to identify and solve mutual problems cross functional team
a team with highly interdependent members who work together effectively on a daily basis to manufacture an entire product or provide an entire service to a set of customers self-managed team
a team with members who collaborate through various information technologies on one or more tasks while geographically dispersed at two or more locations and who have minimal face to face interaction. virtual team
desktop videoconferencing systems, collaborative software systems, and internet/intranet systems categories of technologies
____ has members from a variety of countries who are separated significantly by time, distance, culture, and language global team
context, leadership, goals, team size, member roles, member diversity, norms, and cohesiveness. core influences on team effectiveness
the external conditions within which a team works. Ex: technology, organization design, physical working conditions, management practices and organizational rewards context
an individual whose influence in a team grows over time and usually reflects a unique ability to help the team reach its goals informal leader
the outcomes desired for the team as a whole team goals
two or more individuals, teams, or groups might pursue but can't be achieved without their cooperation. superordinate goals
a team's or group's shared perception of its capability to successfully perform specific tasks collective efficacy
The effective size of a can range from __ members to a normal upper limit of about __ 3 and 16
___ involves facilitating and coordinating work-related behaviors and decision making. initiating, seeking information, giving information, coordinating, evaluating task oriented role
__ involves fostering team-centered attitudes, behaviors, emotions, and social interactions. encouraging, harmonizing, expressing, following relations oriented role
___ involves the person's self-centered attitudes, behaviors, and decisions that are at the expense of the team or group. blocking progress by, seeking recognition, dominating, avoiding self oriented role
the process by which teams divide themselves into subgroups based on one or more attributes fault lines
the rules and patterns of behavior that are accepted and expected by members of a team or whole organization norms
rules required by governmental laws and rules developed by regulatory agencies formal organizational rules
___ occurs when a person's behavior reflects the team's desired behavior because of real or imagined pressure. compliance conformity
the individual's behavior and attitudes are consistent with the team's norms and goals personal acceptance conformity
the strength of the member's desire to remain in a team and their commitment to it cohesiveness
groupthink, free riding, the bad apples effect, absence of trust, and avoidance of accountability for results potential team dysfunctions
an agreement at any cost mentality that results in ineffective group or team decision making and poor decisions groupthink
an individual who obtains benefits from membership but does not contribute much to achieving the team's goals. free rider
one or more individuals in the team deciding to withhold effort in the belief that others and planning to withhold effort sucker effect
negative team or group members who withhold effort express negative feelings and attitudes and violate important team norms and behaviors bad apples effect
Created by: 1024710193