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CHAPTER 4 - Prenatal Development and Birth

germinal period the period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception. It includes the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall
blastocyst the inner layer of cells that develops during the germinal period. These cells later develop into the embryo
trophoblast the outer layer of cells that develops in the germinal period. These cells provide nutrition and support for the embryo
embryonic period the period of prenatal development that occurs two to eight weeks after conception. During the embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear
amnion the life-support system that is a bag or envelope that contains a clear fluid in which the developing embryo floats
umbilical cord a life-support system containing two arteries and one vein that connects the baby to the placenta
placenta a life-support system that consists of a disk-shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine
organogenesis organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development
fetal period the prenatal period of development that begins two months after conception and lasts for seven months, on the average
teratogen from the Greek word tera, meaning “monster.” Any agent that causes a birth defect. The field of study that investigates the causes of birth defects is called teratology
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) a cluster of abnormalities that appears in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy
doula a caregiver who provides continuous physical, emotional, and educational support for the mother before, during, and after childbirth
natural childbirth developed in 1914 by Dick-Read, this method attempts to reduce the mother’s pain by decreasing her fear through education about childbirth and relaxation techniques during delivery.
prepared childbirth developed by French obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze, this childbirth strategy is similar to natural childbirth but includes a special breathing technique to control pushing in the final stages of labor and a more detailed anatomy and physiology course
breech position the baby’s position in the uterus that causes the buttocks to be the first part to emerge from the vagina
apgar scale a widely used method to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth. This evaluates infants’ heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color, and reflex irritability
brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS) a test given several days after birth to assess newborns’ neurological development, reflexes, and reactions to people
low birth weight infants an infant that weighs less 5 ½ pounds at birth
preterm infants those born three weeks or more before the pregnancy has reached its full term
neonatal intensive care unit network neurobehavioral scale (NNNS) an “offspring” of the NBAS, the NNNS provides a more comprehensive analysis of the newborn’s behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities
small for date infants also called for gestational age infants, these infants’ birth weights are below normal when the length of pregnancy is considered. Small for date infants may be preterm or full term
kangaroo care a way of holding a preterm infant so that there is skin-to-skin contact
postpartum period the period after childbirth when the mother adjusts, both physically and psychologically, to the process of childbirth. This period lasts for about six weeks or until her body has completed its adjustment and returned to a near prepregnant state
postpartum depression characteristics of women who have such strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair that they have trouble coping with daily tasks in the postpartum period
bonding the formation of a close connection, especially a physical bond between parents and their newborn in the period shortly after birth
Created by: Jessica C
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