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Image Prod Unit 1

Image Production and Manipulation Ch. 1

Many different energy levels Heterogenous
Brems radiation is heterogenous or homogenous? Heterogenous
Characteristic Radiation is also known as? Homogenous or Monochromatic
When energy levels are all the same it is termed? Homogenous
The 1st condition necessary for the production of X-rays: Boiling/Separation off of electrons
When electrons are boiled or separated off the term is: Thermionic Emission (Edison Effect)
What is the controlling factor for Thermionic Emission? mA
When increasing the mA on the control console (thereby increasing the heat in the filament) what is also increased? # of electrons and density
What is the 2nd condition necessary for the production of X-rays? Speed of electrons
What is the controlling factor for the speed of electrons? kVp
The 3rd condition necessary for the production of X-rays? Concentration of electrons
What controls the concentration of electrons? Focusing cup
What is the only way to overcome the negative effect of space charge? Increase kVp
When would electrons separate off from the filament but hover in the area around the filament? Because the exposure switch has not been activated
Why is space charge an undesirable quality? Because it hinders thermionic emission
What is the 4th necessary condition in the production of X-rays? Target - the sudden slowing or stopping of electrons
What is transferred at the target? Kinetic energy to heat and x-rays
The more energy the projectile electron loses per interaction, the __________ the Brems photon will be. Stronger
Brems radiation comprises what percentage of the the x-ray beam? 85%-90%
In Brems radiation, when a projectile electron interacts with a positive anode atom it produces an X-ray photon ___________ to the energy lost. Equal
Brems radiation means _______ wavelengths. Many
X-ray photons are ______ energy. Pure
How fast do X-ray photons travel? Speed of light
Chararcteristic radiation comprises what percentage of the beam? 10% - 15%
In characteristic radiation, what is the binding energy of the K shell? 69kVp
_________ atoms have the same number of protons as it does electrons. Stable
When creating a hole in the energy level of an atom it becomes ___________. Ionized
In Characteristic radiation, what is the anode atom composed of? Tungsten
In characteristic radiation, an electron must be borrowed from an outer energy level to fill the hole in the K shell. What is the characteristic photon radiation that is created equal to? The difference between the K shell binding energy and the energy of the outer level electron that was borrowed.
X-ray photons are created at the speed of ______, exists at the speed of _______, or doesn't __________ at all. Light; Light, Exist
The area on which the electrons bombard the anode disk is called the __________ ________. Focal Spot
Stationary anodes have a __________ button. Tungsten
When electrons are released from the cathode and travel to the anode disk it moves how fast? Approximately 93,000 miles per second
Bremsstrahlung radiation means "____________ ___________" Braking Radiation
The number of photons in a beam of radiation defines its ___________. Intensity
What is the measurement of beam intensity? mR (milliroentgen)
What 4 things control the intensity of the beam? mAs, kV, SID, Filtration
Inherent filtration is approximately ______ aluminum equivalent. .5mm
The amount of total filtration (inherent plus added) MUST equal what according to US goverment regulations? 2.5mm Al eq
Name 3 typical added filters: Aluminum plate, Collimator mirror, plastic cover on the collimator
Special application filters that are designed to compensate for variation in thickness or tissue composition across a body part are called what? Compensating Filters
A compensating filter provides a more uniform ___________ on a radiographic image. Density
A trough filter is typically used for what body part? Chest image
The thickest portion of a wedge filter is positioned on the collimator box to correspond with the _____________ portion of the body part. Thinnest
Isotropically means what? In all directions
X-rays that are produced in areas of the anode other than the focal spot is referred to as? Off-Focus radiation
The predominant scatter radiation that produces film fog is called ___________ scatter. Compton
Characteristic radiation is what type of interaction? Photoelectric interaction
What interaction is responsible for the contrast on the image? Photoelectric interaction
When an X-ray photon is completely absorbed by the tissue and no longer exists, but also causes complete absorption of the secondary ionized atom is called what type of interaction? Photoelectric interaction
An interaction that produces scatter radiation but DOES NOT cause ionization is called? Classic scattering
In the electromagnetic spectrum, what are the 3 regions of the continuum of electromagnetic energy? 1. Visible Light 2. Radio Frequency 3. X-Radiation
What are the 3 reasons for reduced intensity of x-ray emissions at low energies? 1. Not all electrons reach peak energy 2. Brems may happen many times, gets weaker each time. 3. Filters remove low energy photons
The symbol for frequency? Unit of measurement? Nu "μ"; Hz
When increasing kVp, give 4 examples of the reaction: 1. Increasing speed of projectile electron 2. Increasing kinetic energy of electron 3. Increasing strength of the x-ray photon produced 4. Increased frequency of photon
When increasing kVp, what is decreased? Wavelength of photon
Symbol for wavelength? Unit of measurement? λ=Lambda; Angstrom Å
"λ min" means what? Shortest "min" wavelength = Strongest photon in the beam of radiation
The distance between the crests of the wave is the ____________. Wavelength
The number of times the crest occurs in the wave refers to what? Frequency (μ)
Frequency and wavelength are _________ proportional. Inversely
What is the characteristic (wavelength and frequency) of a strong x-ray photon? Short wavelength; high frequency
What is the formula for the speed of light? C= μ x λ ; C= nu x lambda
When a photon reacts as though it has the characteristic of matter (ie: dislodging an electron), its referred to as what? wave-particle duality phenomena
List the 12 characteristics of x-rays: (IDES PPHI CFCS) Invisible; Diverge; Electrically neutral; Speed of light; Penetrating; Affect Photo-film; Heterogenous; Ionize atoms; Crystals floures; Cant be focused; Chem-Bio Changes; Scatter
An increase in kVp will have what effect on Brems radiation? Increase the efficiency and number of Brems radiation
An increase in frequency does what to x-ray photon energy? Increase
In Brems radiation the ____________ is the change in electron kinetic energy. Wavelength
The velocity of a photon can be determined by what? The kinetic energy of the projectile electron
What kind of energy is a photon? Electromagnetic energy
Brems radiation is created by the conversion of __________ energy to ___________ energy. Kinetic energy to electromagnetic energy
What are 3 materials that anodes are made of? Tungsten, Molybdenum, Rhenium
The nucleus of an atom has what kind of charge? Positive
Created by: foster1317