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CHILD DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER 3 - Biological Beginnings

QuestionAnswer
evolutionary psychology emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction, and “survival of the fittest” in shaping behavior
chromosomes threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair coming from each parent. Chromosomes contain the gentic substance DNA
DNA a complex molecule that contains genetic information
genes units of hereditary information composed of DNA. They have direct cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins that maintain life
mitosis cellular reproduction in which the cell’s nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed, each containing the same DNA as the parent cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes
meiosis a specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm (or gametes)
fertilization a stage in reproduction whereby an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell, called a zygote
zygote a single cell formed through fertilization
genotype a person’s genetic heritage; the actual genetic material
phenotype the way an individual’s genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics
down syndrome a chromosomally transmitted form of mental retardation, caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21
klinefelter syndrome a chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome, making them XXY instead of XY
fragile X syndrome a genetic disorder involving an abnormality in the X chromosome, which becomes constricted and, often, breaks
turner syndrome a chromosome disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing, making the person XO instead of XX, or the second X chromosome is partially deleted
XYY syndrome a chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra Y chromosome
phenylketonuria a genetic disorder in which an individual cannot properly metabolize an amino acid. It is now easily detected but, if left untreated, results in mental retardation and hyperactivity
sickle-cell anemia a genetic disorder that affects the red blood cells and occurs most often in people of African descent
behavior genetics the field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development
twin study a study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins
adoption study a study that invests whether, in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like their adoptive parents, who provided a home entertainment, or more like their biological parents, who contributed their heredity
passive genotype-environmental correlations correlations that exist when the natural parents, who are genetically related to the child, provide a rearing environment for the child
evocative genotype-environment correlations correlations that exist when the natural parents, who are genetically related to the child, provide a rearing environment for the child
active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations correlations that exist when children seek out environments they find compatible and stimulating
shared environmental experiences siblings’ common environmental experiences, such as their parents’ personalities and intellectual orientation, the family’s socioeconomic status, and the neighborhood in which they live
nonshared environmenatl experiences the child’s own unique experiences, both within the family and outside the family, that are not shared by another sibling. Thus, experiences occurring within the family can be part of the “nonshared environment”
epigenetic view emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment
Created by: Jessica C