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Final chapters


The salt water ______________ when poured into the glass containing cold tap water. collected at the bottom
At which latitudes are the highest surface salinities located? 20o to 30o
3 0 out of 2 points   Evaporation and temperature are the two factors that control the concentration of salts in seawater. False
Of the two oceans, which ocean has the higher average surface salinities? Atlantic
In general, salinity will ___________ with depth in the equatorial and tropical regions and will __________ with depth at high latitudes. decrease, increase
Below the halocline, the salinity of ocean water will ____________. remain fairly constant
Your observations of the warm water poured into the glass of cold water tells you that the warm water is _______________. less dense
At high latitudes ____________ surface temperatures and ____________ surface densities are found.    cold, high
Temperature decreases most rapidly with depth at ___________ latitudes. low
Below the thermocline, the temperature of ocean water ____________. remains fairly constant
An echo sounder operates by measuring the time required for a ________. sound pulse travels from a ship to the seafloor and back
Large estuaries are more common on a ________ coastline. submergent
Which one of the following is NOT part of the continental margin?    continental trench
The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed the ________.    continental shelf
The daily tidal range is LEAST during ________ tide. neap
When waves reach shallow water, they are often bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This process is termed ________. refraction
Which one of the following would most likely be covered with thick turbidite layers?    deep-sea fan at the base of a continental slope
A ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a ________. spit
The continental rise is located ________.    between an abyssal plain and continental slope
Which one of the following structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves? breakwater
The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream comes from ________.    prevailing winds
The movement of sand parallel to the shore ________. all of these
A flat, bench-like surface cut in rock along a coast is a ________.    wave-cut platform
Which of the following is designed to prevent or retard shoreline erosion?    all of these
An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a ________.    sea stack
Minerals that crystallize directly from seawater are examples of ________.    hydrogenous sediment
Fetch refers to ________.    a large expanse of open water over which the wind blows and generates waves
Which one of the following salts is most abundant in seawater?    sodium chloride
A sand bar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean is a ________.    none of these
The crests of mid-oceanic ridges ________.    contain active rift zones
Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay are ________.    all of these
Fetch is ________.    none of these
Concerning the distribution of land and water, which of the following statements is true?    the Southern Hemisphere has much more water surface than the Northern Hemisphere
One result of wave refraction is that wave energy is concentrated ________.    on headlands projecting into the water
Which ocean has the greatest average depth? Pacific
Seamounts ________.    are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a ________. tombolo
The daily tidal range is GREATEST during ________ tide. spring
Waves begin to "feel bottom" when the depth of water is ________.    equal to one-half the wavelength
Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ________ of their path of motion in the Southern Hemisphere. left
It is thought that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated by ________    turbidity currents
How do calcareous oozes form?    the particles are precipitated in warm, surface waters and sink to the bottom
Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?    sea arch
Submarine canyons are found on the continental slope and are believed to have been created ________.    none of these
The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed ________.    longshore current
The oceans cover approximately ________ percent of Earth's surface. 70
Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the ________ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere. right
The ________ Ocean is largest. Pacific
The presence of which one of the following would indicate that the land had been uplifted or that sea level had fallen?    elevated marine terrace
The BEST definition of the outer edge of the continental shelf is that point where ________.    a rapid steepening of the gradient occurs
________ develop where oceanic lithosphere bends downward and sinks into the mantle.    Deep ocean trenches
Which one of the following concerning mid-ocean ridges is false?    sediments include thick siliceous ooze deposits and sandy turbidite beds
Which one of the following would you NOT associate with turbidity currents?    formation of seamounts
Manganese nodules are an example of ________.    hydrogenous sediment
A poleward-moving ocean current is ________. warm
Which of the following is a tidal current?    both flood and ebb tide
Which of the following is associated with ocean ridges?    all of these
The zigzag movement of sand grains along a beach is ________.    both caused by obliquely breaking waves and called beach drift
Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called ________.    terrigenous sediment
Which of the following is NOT true of deep ocean trenches?    they are geologically very stable
Earth receives energy from the Sun in this way. radiation
Which one of the following is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere? nitrogen
Fifty percent of the gases making up the atmosphere are found below ________.    3 ½ miles (5.6 km)
Which one of the following statements is true about the equinoxes?    days and nights are equal in length everywhere
Which are mechanisms of heat transfer?    all of these
The two most important heat absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere are ________.    water vapor and carbon dioxide
The storage of heat in the lower layer of the atmosphere produced by certain heat absorbing gases is called the ________.    greenhouse effect
The 90 angle solar rays are striking the Tropic of Cancer on ________.    June 21
Which one of the following latitudes best represents the location where the Sun is directly overhead at noon on April 21?    8>N
Ozone filters out most of the ________ radiation in sunlight. ultraviolet
Which one of the gases listed below is more important meteorologically (that is, is more important in weather processes) than the others?    carbon dioxide
The wavelengths of radiation emitted by Earth are ________.    longer than those emitted by the Sun
The tropopause is the boundary between ________    the troposphere and stratosphere
With which of the following is dust in the atmosphere associated?    all of these
The lowest layer of the atmosphere is the ________. troposphere
On the AVERAGE, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature ________.    drops about 6.5C
On this date the length of daylight gets progressively longer as you go further south from the equator.    December 21
On the average, how much of the Sun's energy that is intercepted by Earth is reflected back to space?    30%
The North Pole has a higher noon Sun angle than New York City on this date.    none of these
At noon on February 21, the Sun is overhead ________.    at some point between the Tropic of Capricorn and the equator, heading northward
The spring equinox in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on ________.    March 21
Practically all clouds and storms occur in this layer of the atmosphere. troposphere
The triatomic form of oxygen (O3) is known as ________. ozone
Ozone is concentrated in the ________. stratosphere
A very important control of the DAILY range of temperature is ________.    the amount of water vapor in the air
The cloud form that is best described as sheets or layers that cover much or all of the sky is termed ________. stratus
The cloud form that consists of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or "cauliflower-like" structure is called ________. cumulus
This term is used to describe clouds found in the middle height range. alto
High clouds that form delicate veil-like patches or extended wispy fibers are termed ________. cirrus
This term is used to describe clouds that produce precipitation. nimbo
These clouds are often called "fair weather" clouds. cumulus
This cloud sometimes produces "mare's tails." cirrus
This cloud type is confined to the middle height range. altostratus
Hail is most commonly associated with ________. cumulonimbus
A wintertime form of precipitation that consists of small ice particles is called ________.    sleet
This fog forms in valleys at night.    radiation fog
When warm moist air moves over a cold surface, ________ fog may result. advection
Which one of the fogs listed below may be categorized as an evaporation fog? steam
The amount of water vapor in the air (by volume) usually does not exceed ________.    4%
When using a psychrometer and the two temperatures read nearly the same, you can conclude that ________.    the air has a high relative humidity
Under what circumstances could the relative humidity exceed 100% without producing condensation in the air?    there are no condensation nuclei
The most important process of cloud formation in the atmosphere is ________.    cooling by expansion of air
If air at sea level with a temperature of 27C is forced up a mountain slope and the air's dew point at the condensation level is 14C, at what elevation will condensation begin?    1300 meters
Which of the following would NOT be associated with stable atmospheric conditions?    afternoon thunder showers
Deserts such as the Great Basin, Gobi, and Takla Makan are examples of ________.    rainshadow deserts
The change of state from a gas to a liquid is called ________.    condensation
The term ________ is used to describe the conversion of a solid directly to a gas, without passing through the liquid state. sublimation
The process by which water vapor changes directly to a solid is called ________. deposition
This process results in the release of about 600 calories of latent heat per gram of water. condensation
Please answer the following questions using the data provided: H20 vapor content: 14grams H2O vapor capacity: 20grams at 25 degrees Celsius 14grams at 20 degrees Celsius 10grams at 15 degrees Celsius What is the dew point for the conditions listed a    20C
Standard sea level pressure in millibars is    1013 mb
Standard sea level pressure in inches of mercury is ________.    29.92 inches
Which of these instruments is NOT used to measure air pressure?    anemometer
  Question 4 1 out of 1 points   An altimeter is an adaptation of the ________.    aneroid barometer
Which of these factors influence the magnitude of the Coriolis force?    both wind speed and latitude
Lines on a weather map connecting places of equal air pressure are called ________. isobars
Closely spaced isobars often indicate ________.    high winds
A steep pressure gradient ________.    produces strong winds
Widely spaced isobars often indicate ________.    light winds
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system (cyclone) blow ________.    counterclockwise and toward the center
In the Northern Hemisphere, winds associated with a high pressure system blow ________.    clockwise and outward from the center
If Earth were not rotating ________.    air would move directly from high to low pressure
Upper air winds ________.    are generally faster than surface winds
High air pressure systems are usually associated with ________.    all of these
In the Southern Hemisphere, the winds associated with a low pressure system blow ________.    clockwise and toward the center
If "fair" weather is approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be ________. rising
If stormy weather is approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be ________.    falling
Most of the United States is situated in which zone of prevailing winds?    westerlies
Another name for the area of subtropical highs is ________.    horse latitudes
This pressure zone is associated with abundant precipitation and warm temperatures.    equatorial low
When are upper air winds fastest?    in winter
A Santa Ana (or Chinook or Foehn) wind is a ________.    very dry, warm wind flowing down a mountain slope
A sea breeze usually originates during the ________.    day and flows toward the land
Fast moving currents of air found near the top of the troposphere are called ________.    jet streams
What is the technical name for a high pressure center? anticyclone
The station model above describes a pressure of 1099.6 millibars. False
An increase in temperature usually results in an increase in pressure. False
Isobars are usually drawn for every _________ millibar change in pressure. 4
The larger the pressure gradient, the ____________ the winds. stronger

On the diagram above, winds along line AB traveled from _____________.  
(Refer to the map in your lab printout for the isobars).    southwest to northeast
Wind along line ____ will travel faster than wind along line ____.    AB, CD 
How many pressure centers did you identify in the model you created from the data above? 2
According to the compass, air would flow from _____ to _____ in the model you created from the data above.    west; east
Between which two cities would the winds be the strongest in the model above?    Denver and Indianapolis
Which city is closest to the low pressure center? Indianapolis
Created by: need2learn