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BIO202 - Midterm Review 1 - Q & A's from Online Lessons & L

T/F, The anterior pituitary secretes antidiuretic hormone. False - does not secrete
The release of hormones from adenohypophysis is controlled by secretions of __. hypothalamus
The __ gland declines in size & function with age. thymus
The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the __. thyroid
The __ gland may influence our day/night cycles & even regulate onset of sexual maturity. pineal
T/F, Many hormones synthesized in gastrointestional tract are chemically identical to neurotranmitters. True - they are similar
T/F, Peptide hormones enter target cells & elicit a response by mediating neurotransmitter effects. False - they do not
T/F, Direct gene activation involves a 2nd messenger system. False - acts directly
T/F, The thyroid gland controls metabolic functions throughout life. True - it does control metabolic function
T/F, ACTH, FSH, & LH are secreted by adenohypophysis. True - they all are.
T/F, All peptide synthesis requires gene activation & mRNA. True - it does require gene activation
T/F, The thyroid is embedded in the parathyroid. False - other way around.
Chemically, hormones belong chiefly to two molecular groups, the __ and the __. steroids, amino acid based
Located in throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus thyroid gland
Found close to the kidney Adrenal gland
A mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestine. Pancreas
Paired glands suspended in the scrotum. Testes
Ride "horseback" on the thyroid gland. Parathyroid
Found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production. Ovaries
Programming of T lymphocytes Thymosin from the thymus gland
Regulate blood calcium levels PTH (parathroid gland) & thyrocalcitonin/calcitonin (thyroid gland)
Basal metabolism hormone T4/T3 (thyroid gland)
Released in response to stressors Cortisone (adrenal cortex) & epinephrine (adrenal medulla)
Drive secondary sexual characteristics Estrogens (ovaries) & testosterone (testes)
Regulate the function of another endocrine gland ACTH, FSH, LH, & TSH - all produced by anterior pituitary
Mimics the sympathetic NS Epinephrine (adrenal medulla)
Regulate blood glucose levels Glucagon & Insulin (pancreas)
Directly responsible for the menstrual cycle estrogens & progesterone (ovaries)
Regulate the ovarian cycle FSH & LH (anterior pituitary)
Maintenance of salt and water balance in the ECF ADH (hypothalamus) & aldosterone (adrenal cortex)
Directly involved in milk production and ejection Oxytocin (hypothalamus) & prolactin (anterior pituitary)
Questionable function; may stimulate the melanocytes of skin MSH (anterior pituitary)
ADH is stimulated by what factor? The NS - ADH
Aldosterone is stimulated by what factor? Humoral factors - aldosterone
Estrogens is stimulated by what factor? another hormone - estrogens
Insulin is stimulated by what factor? humoral factors - insulin
norephinephrine is stimulated by what factor? The NS - NE
Parathyroid hormone is stimulated by what factor? Humoral factors - Parathyroid hormone
T4/T3 is stimulated by what factor? another hormone - T4/T3
Testosterone is stimulated by what factor? Another hormone - testosterone
TSH, FSH is stimulated by what factor? Another hormone - TSH & FSH
Lack of this causes sexual immaturity. Estrogen & testosterone
Lack of this causes tetany. PTH - tetany
Lack of this causes excessive diuresis without high blood glucose levels ADH - excessive diuresis
Lack of this causes polyurea, polyphagia, and polydipsia Insulin - Diabetes Mellitus
Lack of this causes abnormally small stature, normal proportions. Growth hormone (GH)
Lack of this causes miscarriage. Progesterone - miscarriage
Lack of this causes lethargy, hair loss, low BMR, obesity T4/T3 - lack of
Excessive amounts of growth hormone (GH) causes? Lantern jaw and large hands & feet in adult.
Excessive amounts of T4/T3 causes? Bulging eyes, nervousness, increased pulse rate
Excessive amounts of PTH causes? Demineralization of bones, spontaneous fractures.
Calcitonin is released by? Parafollicular cells of the thyroid
T4/T3 are released by? Follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid
Insulin is released by? Beta cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
Glucagon is released by? Alpha cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
TSH, ACTH, FSH, & LH are released by? Basophil cells of the anterior pituitary
Glucocorticoids are released by? Zona fasciculata cells
Mineralocorticoids are released by? Zone glomerulosa cells
PTH is released by? Chief cells
GH & prolactin are released by? Acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary.
A hormone that regulates gamete production. FSH
Steroids or amino acid-based molecules released into the blood, which arouse tissues. Hormones
Consists of two functional areas: the adenohypophysis & neurohypophysis Pituitary Gland
Controlled by the sympathetic NS & release epinephrine and norepinephrine. Adrenal medulla - chromaffin cells
Regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland. ACTH - regulates cortex portion
A hormone produces in the adrenal cortex that enables the body to resist long term stress. Glucocorticoid
Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of __. Cortisol
Virtually all the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular __. 2nd messengers
Oxytocin release is and example of __. a positive feedback control mechanism
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because? It is nonly a hormone storage area that receives hormones fromt he hypothalamus for release.
Steroid hormones exert their action by? Entering the nucleus of a cell an initiating or altering the expression of a gene.
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by? Bindig to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP.
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to: Steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily in to target cells.
The marjor targets of growth hormone are? Bones and skeletal muscles
Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP? The heart
MIneralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucorticoid is to __. cortisol
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is? aldosterone
Name 3 second messengers. Cyclic AMP, Cyclic GMP, & Inositol triphosphate
An amino acid derivative can be a __. Hormone
T/F, the liver is affected by thyroid hormone. True - the spleen, testes, and brain are not.
Thyroxine does not require __ to effect a response. a second messenger
Catecholamines and/or peptide hormones bind to receptors on the surface of cells that comprise target organs & cause __. Adenylate cyclase to generate cyclic AMP from ATP
Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. They do so by __. Increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, & amino acid levels & enhancing BP.
What ion is sometimes used as a 2nd messenger of amino acid-base hormones? Calcium
Created by: Ladystorm