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pharmacology notes

Agonist Brings about effect after binding to a receptor. low affinity. high efficacy
Types of agonist -Partial agonist -Inverse agonist
Acetylcholin agonist -Neostigmine -Physostigmine
Acetylcholin antagonist -Curare -Atropine
Types of cholin transporters -High affinity -Low affinity
High affinity cholin transporter Dependent on ATP
Low affinity cholin transporter Dependent on extra-cellular cholin concentrations
Break down of Acetylcholin Acetylcholinesterases [ACHE]
Synthesis of Acetylcholin Cholin acetyltransferases [CHAT]
Precursor of Acetylcholin -Cholin -Acetyl CoA
Inactivation of cholin transporters Hemicholinium
SNARE proteins Enable and facilitate the release of the ACH from the vesicles,by enabling the vesicle to bind to the membrane
Botulinum toxin [botox] breaks down SNARE proteins
Inhibit the release of ACH from the vesicles Botulinum toxin
COX [cyclo oxyginase] enzyme inhibitor NSAIDS
COX 1 -Homeostasis -protective mucus for lining the stomch
COX 2 -Involved in inflammation
NSAIDs -Anti inflammation -Antipyretic -Analgesic
LOX enzyme [lysyl oxidase] product leukotrienes
Leukotrienes Potent broncho constrictors
LOX antagonists -Montelukast -Enfirlukast
types of NSAIDs and their examples -Salicylic acid:acetyl salicylic acid [aspirin] -P amino phenol:[paracetamol] -Indol -Cnolics:[Oxicams]
Types of Cytokines -Interleukines -Interferons -Tissue necrotic factor
Interleukines Synthesised by T-lymphocytes and helper CD4
Interferons Released by cells which have been invaded by a bacteria. -have febril symptoms
Cytokines funtion Intracellular communication
Inflammation mediators -Breadykinin -Histamine -Prostaglandins -leukotrienes -cytokines -platelet activating factor
Platelet Activating Factor involved in inflammation
Vaso dilation causes! -decrease in blood pressure
Contraction of smooth muscles can lead to - Broncho constriction
Prostaglandin analogues Prostanoids
Prostanoids used in Termination Of Pregnancy[TOP] -Gemeprost -Misoprost
Types of Prostaglandins -PgH2 -PgI2 -Thromboxane A2 and B2 -PgE -PgF2 alpha
PgI2 -Inhibits platelet aggregation -Dilator
PgF2 alpha -Powerful uterine contractions -Potent broncho constrictor
Thromboxane A2 -Vaso constictor
PgG2 -Vaso dilator -GIT relaxation -ionotropic
Ionotropic affects the force of muscular contraction
PgEp1 -Broncho constrictor -Vaso constritor
PgEp2 -Broncho dilator -caso dilator
Lipid derieved mediators -Prostaglandins -Leukotrienes
Substrate for LOX and COX Arachidonic acid
Lipokotien Inhibits Phospho lipase A -stimulated by glucocortecoids
Types of Histamine receptors -H1 -H2 -H3
H1 antagonist -Promethazine -Cyclizine
Motion sickness drugs -Promethazine -Cyclizine
Cimetidine side effects -Inhibits liver enzyme Cytochrome P450
H2 antagonist -Cimetidine -Ranitidine
Antihistamines have similar effects as- Atropin
Atropin Anti-cholinergic -Competitive antagonist
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme [ACE] Breaks down breadykinin
ACE inhibitors -Enalapril -Captopril
Histamine synthesized from L-histadine
ACE inhibitors pharmacological effect Decrease blood pressure,since breadykinins are vaso-dilators
Characteristics of inflammation -swelling -pain -heat -redness -loss of function
Types of paralyzing agents Non depolarizing agents Depolarizing agents
Non-depolarizing blockers curariform agents
Curariform agents D tubocurarine,Dimethyl tubocurarine
Non depolarizing agents Do not cause any effect before paralysis
D tubocurarine analogus Alcuronium,Puncuronium,Gallamine, Atracurium
Created by: 100000821506952



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