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Alberts Final Exam

Final exam study information for COMM 101

Channel The mode senders choose to send information.
Noise Any stimulus that can interfere with, or degrade the quality of a message.
Messages The building blocks of communication events.
Human Communication A transactional process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages in specific contexts, influenced by individual and societal forces and embedded in culture.
Human Communication Model A transactional model that, like most previous models, depicts communication as occurring when two or more people create meaning as they respond to each other and their environment.
Healthy Feedback The honest and ethical responses receivers provide to the messages of others.
Field of Experience The education, life events, and cultural background that a communicator processes.
Feedback The response to a message.
Ethics Standards of what is right and wrong, good and bad, moral and immoral.
Participants The people interacting during communication.
Reasoned Skepticism The balance of open-mindedness and critical attitude needed when evaluating others’ messages.
Relationship Meaning What a message conveys about the relationship between the parties.
Relativism Pertaining to the belief that moral behavior varies among individuals, groups, and cultures, as well as across situations.
Setting The physical surroundings of a communication event.
Symbol Something that represents something else and conveys meaning.
Encoding Taking ideas and converting them into messages.
Absolutism Pertaining to the belief that there is a single correct moral standard that holds for everyone, everywhere, and everytime.
Communication Ethics The standards of right and wrong that one applies to messages that are sent and received.
Content Meaning The concrete meaning of the message and the meanings suggested by or associated with the message and emotions triggered by it.
Culture Learned patterns of perceptions, values, and behaviors shared by a group of people.
Decoding Receiving a message and interpreting its meaning.
Mindfulness Having a clear focus on the activity you are engaged in, with attention to as many specifics of the event as you can.
Attribution Theory Explanation of the processes we use to judge our own and others’ behavior.
Organization The process by which one recognizes what sensory input represents.
Attribution Bias The tendency to attribute one’s own negative behavior to external causes and one’s positive actions to internal states.
Selective Attention Consciously or unconsciously attending to just a narrow range of the full array of sensory information to focus on.
Particular Others The important people in an individual’s life whose opinions and behavior influence the various aspects of identity.
Categorization A cognitive process used to organize information by placing it into larger groupings of information.
Self-Concept The understanding of one’s unique characteristics as well as the similarities to, and differences from, others.
Perception The processes of selection, organization, and interpretation of the information you collect through your senses: what you see, hear, taste, smell, and touch.
Cognitive Representation The ability to form mental models of the world.
Self-Esteem Part of one’s self concept; arises out of how one perceives and interprets reflected appraisals and social comparisons.
Prejudice Experiencing aversive or negative feelings toward a group as a whole or toward an individual because she or he belongs to a group.
Frame A structure that shapes how people interpret their perceptions.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy When an individual expects something to occur, the expectation increases, the likelihood that it will occur.
Primary Identities Identities such as race, ethnicity, and age that have a consistent and enduring impact on your life.
Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to attribute others’ negative behavior to internal causes and their positive behaviors to external causes.
Self-Serving Bias The tendency to give one’s self more credit than is due when good things happen and to accept too little responsibility for those things that go wrong.
Prototype An idealized schema
Generalized Other The collection of roles, rules, norms, beliefs, and attitudes endorsed by the community in which a person lives.
Sensory Model A model that explains how an individual culture emphasizes a few of the five senses.
Reflected Appraisals The idea that people’s self-images rise arise primarily from the ways in which others view them and from the many messages they have received from others about who they are.
Identity Who a person is, composed of individual and social categories a person identifies with, as well as the categories that others identify with that person.
Social Identity The specific identities an individual holds in a society.
Interpersonal Script A relatively fixed sequence of events that functions as a guide or template for communication or behavior.
Interpretation The act of assigning meaning to sensory information.
Stereotype Threat Process in which reminding individuals of stereotypical expectations regarding important identities can impact their performance.
Secondary Identities Identities such as occupation and marital status that are changeable over the life span and from situation to situation.
Label A name assigned to a category based on one’s perception of the category.
Stereotyping Creating schemas that overgeneralize attributes of a specific group.
Selection The process of choosing which sensory information to focus on.
Looking-Glass Self The idea that self-image results from the images others reflect back to an individual.
Imaginative Use of language to express oneself artistically or creatively.
Heuristic Use of language to acquire knowledge and understanding.
Informative Use of language to communicate information or report facts.
Evaluative Communication Messages that carry judgments of right and wrong, good or bad.
Instrumental Use of language to obtain what you need or desire.
Equality-Oriented Communication Messages that convey a sense of worth of others and their ideas, viewpoints.
Interactional Use of language to establish and define social relationships.
Phonology The study of the sounds that compose individual languages and how those sounds communicate meaning.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Idea that the language people speak determines the way they see the world (a relativist perspective
Speech Act Theory Branch of pragmatics that suggests that when people communicate, they do not just say things, they also do things with their words.
Pragmatics Field of study that emphasizes how language is used in specific situations to accomplish goals.
Confirming Communication Comments that validate positive self-images of others.
Syntax The rules that govern word order.
Regulatory Use of language to control or regulate the behavior of others.
Semantics The study of meaning
Cocultural Theory Explores the role of power in daily interactions.
Cohort Effect The influence of shared characteristics of a group that was born and reared in the same general period.
Denotative Meaning The dictionary, or literal, meaning of a word.
Defensive Communication Comments that threaten others self image or persona.
Controlling Communication Messages that attempt to impose one’s will on another, perhaps with coercion.
Connotative Meaning The affective or interpretive meanings attached to a word.
Empathic Communication Messages that convey sympathy and caring.
Jargon Technical terminology associated with a specific topic.
Ebonics A version of English that has its roots in West African, Caribbean, and U.S. slave languages.
Lexical Choice Vocabulary preference
Disconfirming Communication Comments that reject or invalidate a positive or negative self-image of our conversational partners.
Personal Language Use of language to express individuality and personality.
Dialect A variation of a language distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.
Personal Distance (18 inches to 4 feet) the space used when interacting with friends and acquaintances.
Functional Touch The least intimate type of touch; used by certain workers such as dentists, hairstylists, and hospice workers, as part of their livelihood; also known as professional touch.
Nonverbal Codes Distinct, organized means of expression that consist of symbols and rules for their use.
Social-Polite Touch Touch that is part of daily interaction in the United States; it is more intimate than professional touch but is still impersonal.
Paralinguistics All aspects of spoken language except the words themselves; includes rate, volume, pitch, stress.
Voice Qualities Qualities such as speed, pitch, rhythm, vocal range, and articulation that make up the “music” of the human voice.
Vocalizations Uttered sounds that do not have the structure of language.
Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal behavior that has symbolic meaning.
Friendship Touch Touch that is more intimate than social touch and usually conveys warmth, closeness, and caring.
Expressing and Managing Intimacy Using nonverbal behaviors to help convey attraction and closeness.
Establishing Social Control Using nonverbal behavior to exercise influence over other people.
Nonverbal Behavior All the nonverbal actions people perform.
Social Distance (4 to 12 feet) the distance most U.S. Americans use when they interact with unfamiliar others.
Service-Task Functions Using nonverbal behavior to signal close involvement between people in impersonal relationships and contexts.
Monochronically Engaging in one task or behavior at a time.
Emblems Gestures that stand for a specific verbal meaning.
Relaxation The degree of tension displayed in one’s body.
Love-Intimate Touch The touch most often used with one’s romantic partners and family.
Demand Touching A type of touch used to establish dominance and power.
Regulators Gestures used to control conversation.
Kinesics Nonverbal communication sent by the body, including gestures, posture, movement, facial expressions, and eye behavior.
Contradicting Verbal and nonverbal messages that send conflicting messages.
Congruent Verbal and nonverbal messages that express the same meaning.
Intimate Distance (0 to 18 inches) the space used when interacting with those with whom one is very close.
Regulating Interaction Using nonverbal behaviors to help manage turn-taking during conversation.
Communicating Information Using nonverbal behaviors to help clarify verbal messages and reveal attitudes and moods.
Immediacy How close or involved people appear to be with each other.
Public Distance (12 to 25 feet) the distance used for public ceremonies such as lectures and performances.
Chronemics The study of the way in which people use time as a message.
Illustrators Signals that accompany speech to clarify or emphasize verbal messages.
Proxemics The study of how people use spatial cues- including interpersonal distance, territoriality, and other space relationships- to communicate.
Artifacts Clothing and other accessories.
Haptics The study of the communicative function of touch.
Professional Touch Type of touch used by certain workers, such as dentists, hairstylists, and hospice workers, as part of their livelihood; also known as functional touch.
Adaptors Gestures used to manage emotions.
Gestures Nonverbal communication made with part of the body, including actions such as pointing, waving, or holding up a hand to direct people’s attention.
Polychronically Engaging in multiple activities simultaneously.
Soundscape The everyday sounds in our environment.
Supportive Listening Listening skills focused not only on understanding information but also on “listening” to others’ feelings.
Time-Oriented Listening Style A listening style that prefers brief, concise speech.
Understanding Interpreting the messages associated with sounds or what the sounds mean.
Sensing The stage of listening most people refer to as “hearing”; when listeners pick up the sound waves directed toward them.
Responding Showing others how you regard their messages.
People-Oriented Listening Style A listening style that is associated with friendly, open communication and an interest in establishing ties with others.
Listening Style A set of attitudes, beliefs, and predispositions about the how, where, when, who, and what of the information receiving and encoding process.
Listening The process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/ or nonverbal messages.
Evaluating Assessing your reaction to a message.
Action-Oriented Listening Style Listening style that reflects a preference for error-free and well-organized speaking.
Informational Listening Listening skills that are useful in situations requiring attention to content.
Critical Listening Listening skills that are useful in a wide variety of situations- particularly those involving persuasive speaking.
Content-Oriented Listening Style Listening style that reflects an interest in detailed and complex information, simply for the content itself.
Podcast A prerecorded audio program that’s posted to a Web site and is made available for download so people can listen to it on personal computers or mobile devices.
Pseudoanonymity Projecting a false identity.
Phishing E-mail messages that try (fraudulently) to get consumer banking and credit card information.
Social Network Theory Proposes that the patterns of connections among people affect their social behavior and communication.
Media Deficit Approach A theoretical perspective that sees mediated communication as deficient in comparison to face-to-face communication.
Social Presence Degree of psychological closeness or immediacy engendered by various media.
Media Arguementative Approach A theoretical perspective that views mediated communication as complementing or augmenting face-to-face communication.
Media Richness Theory A theoretical perspective that views mediated communication as complementing or augmenting face-to-face communication.
Technocapital Access to technological skills and resources.
World Wide Web (WWW) One of a number of services that moves over the Internet; it uses HTML (hypertext markup language) as its document format.
Asynchronous Occurs when a message is sent and received at different times.
Avatar A computer user’s representation of himself/herself, or alter ego.
Blogs Short for “Web logs”; a Web site, like a journal, maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, description of events, or other material such as graphics or video.
Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) The exchange of messages carried through an intervening system of digital electronic storage and transmitted between two or more people.
Social Presence Theory Theory that suggests that face-to-face communication is generally high in social presence and that media vary in the amount of social presence they convey.
Synchronous Communication in which messages are sent and received at the same time.
Spoofing Misrepresenting onself online
Spam Unwanted commercial messages and advertisements sent through e-mail.
Digital Divide The inequity of access between the technology “haves” and “have-nots”.
Digital Information that is transmitted in a numerical format based on only two values (0 and 1).
Diffusion of Innovations Theory that explains why some innovations, like computers and Internet technology, are accepted by some people and rejected by others.
Cyberspace Synonymous with the Internet or online world.
Cyberbullying The deliberate and repeated misuse of communication technology by an individual or group to threaten or harm others.
Cultural Capital Cultural knowledge and cultural competencies that people need for functioning effectively in society.
Emoticons Pictographs used in e-mail to convey relational information.
Field of Availables The field of potential partners and friends accessible through CMC that is much larger than in face-to-face relationships.
Filtered A form of communication that lacks nonverbal cues.
Internet A system of networks that connect millions of computers around the world.
Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) Text-based “virtual reality” games in which participants interact with environments, objects, and other participants.
Grouphate The distaste and aversion that people feel toward working in groups.
Analysis Paralysis Potential pitfall in small group interaction; occurs when excessive analysis prevents a group from moving toward a solution.
Secondary (recurring) Tension The underlying tension group members experience as they struggle over member roles; it generally surfaces in the second stage, but can reoccur throughout the lifetime on the group.
Groupthink A negative, and potentially disastrous, group process characterized by excessive concurrence in thinking.
Brainstorm To generate as many ideas as possible without critiquing them.
Small Group Communication Communication among a small number of people who share a common purpose or goal, who feel connected to each other, and who coordinate their behavior.
Individual Roles Roles that focus more on individuals’ own interests and needs than on those of a group.
Decision-Making Process The four-phase process used by a group to evaluate information and arrive at a decision or solution.
Task Roles The roles that are directly related to the accomplishment of group goals.
Primary Tension The uncertainty commonly felt in the beginning phase of decision making.
Group Processes The methods, including communication, by which a group accomplishes a task.
Social Facilitations The tendency for people to work harder and do better when others are around.
Primary Groups Groups that provide members with a sense of belongings and affection.
Emergence Phase The third phase of the decision-making process; occurs when group members express a cooperative attitude.
Secondary Groups Groups that meet principally to solve problems.
Group Roles The shared expectations group members have regarding each individual’s communication behavior in the group.
Reinforcement Phase The final phase of the decision-making process when group members reach consensus and members feel a sense of accomplishment.
Group Support Software (GSS) Computer-aided program that supports real-time discussion between members regardless of physical location.
Virtual Work Team A group of people identified as a team by their organization responsible for making decisions important to the organization and have members who communicate electronically substantially more often than face-to-face.
Relational Roles Roles that help establish a group’s social atmosphere.
Statement of Policy Presents a specific action or policy
Logos Rational appeals; the use of rhetoric to help the audience see the rationale for a particular conclusion.
Claim An argument
Boomerang Effect An effect that runs in the opposite direction from the desired effect.
Hostile Audience An audience that turns against the speaker.
Statement of Fact Present something that is either correct or incorrect and can be verified with evidence.
Monroe’s motivated sequence (MMS) A five-step organizational pattern based on the notion that in a persuasive speech, and the speaker is seeking to fulfill that need, the audience must be moved to act.
Demagoguery The attempt to gain power or control over others by using unethical emotional pleas and appealing to listeners’ prejudices.
Statement of Value Presents something as either right or wrong.
Bifurcation A logical fallacy that assumes that two categories are mutually exclusive and exhaustive- that is, that something is either a member of one of the other, but not both or some third category.
Hasty Generalization A logical fallacy that bases an inference on too small a sample or on an unrepresentative sample.
Propositions Statements with which you want your audience to agree.
Ethos Credibility
Fallacies of Reasoning Errors in reasoning
Pathos The rhetorical use of emotions to affect audience decision making.
Sweeping Generalization A logical fallacy that assumes that what is true of the whole will also be true of the part or that what is true in most instances will be true in all instances.
Appeal to Authority A logical fallacy which attempts to justify an argument by citing a highly admired or well-known (but not necessarily qualified) figure who supports the conclusion being offered.
False Dilemma A logical fallacy that implies that one of two outcomes is inevitable and that both have negative consequences.
Persuassive Speaking A speech that influences, convinces, motivates, tells, preaches, or stimulates action.
Appeal to Tradition A logical fallacy based on the principle of not challenging time-honored customs or traditions.
Faulty Analogy A logical fallacy that assumes that because two things, events, or situations are alike in the same known respects, they are alike in other unknown aspects.
Problem-Solution or Problem-Solution- Action Pattern Organizational pattern in which the speaker describes various aspects of a problem and then proposes solutions.
Faulty Cause A logical fallacy that mistakes correlation or association for causation, by assuming that because one thing follows another it was caused by the first.
Appeal to the Crowd A logical fallacy that refers to popular opinion or majority sentiment in order to provide support for a claim.
Created by: COMM101
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