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Pharm 1st Quiz

Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13

QuestionAnswer
Who is considered the American father of Pharmacology? John Jacob Abel
What is the definition of Pharmacology? Study of Medicine
What is the definition of Therapeutics? The branch of medicine concerned with the prevention of disease and the treatment of suffering.
What is the definition of Pharmacotherapy? The application of drugs for the purpose of disease prevention and the treatment of suffering.
What is the definition of Drug? A chemical agent capable of producing biologic responses in the body.
What is the definition of Biologics? An agent naturally produced in animal cells by either the body or microorganisms.
What year was the FDA established? 1988
Describe drug research stage 1 (Preclinical Investigation) in detail. This involves extensive laboratory research, tests on human cells and animal testing.
Describe drug research stage 2 (Clinical Investigation) in detail. This involves three separate clinical phases 1-3.
Describe what happens in drug research stage 3 in detail. A new drug application is filed and the FDA may take 6 months to review it. Phase 3 trials may continue during the NDA process.
Describe why a drug research stage 4 is necessary. This is the post marketing surveillance stage and it is necessary to use this stage to survey a larger population to find out if there are really bad adverse reactions to the drug.
What is the definition for Therapeutic Classification and give an example. This is when a drug is classified by its therapeutic usefulness in treating a particular disease. Examples include anticoagulants, antihyperlipidemics, antihypertensives and antianginals.
What is the definition for Pharmacologic Classification and give an example. This is a way of classifying a drug based on ithe way it works at the molecular, tissue and body system level. Examples include Diuretics, Calcium channel blockers, and vasodilators.
What is the definition for Mechanism of Action? How a drug produces its effect in the body.
What is the definition for Prototype Drug and give an example. This is a well understood drug model with which other drugs in its representative class are compared. An example would be penicillin V.
What is the definition for a drug's Chemical Name? This is the nomenclature for a drug recognized by the IUPAC. For example, diazepam's chemical name would be 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one.
What is the definition for a drug's Generic Name and give an example. This is the name that is assigned to a drug by the US Adopted Name Council. Examples include aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen.
What is the definition of Bioavailability? This is the physiologic ability of a drug to reach its target cells and produce its effects. This is one difference between generic and brand name drugs.
What are the Scheduled Drug levels and give an example of the two highest scheduled drugs. Schedule 1 drugs have limited or no therapeutic value. Examples include heroine, LSD, MJ, Methaqualone. Schedule 2-4 are used therapeutically with a prescription. Schedule 2 samples are morphine, PCP, cocaine, methadone, methamphetamine.
Give examples of schedule 3-5 drugs. Schedule 3 are steroids, codeine with aspirin, hydrocodone with aspirin. Schedule 2 are dextropropoxyphene, pentazocine, meprobomate. Schedule 1 drugs are the lowest.
What are the five rights of drug administration? Right patient, Right medication, Right dose, Right route of administration, Right time of delivery.
What is the time limit for s STAT drug order? 5 minutes or less.
What is the time limit for an ASAP drug order? 30 minutes or less.
What are the three main routes for an enteric drug? Oral, NG tube or Gastrostomy tubes.
What is a parenteral administration of a drug? This is when a drug is dispensed via a needle.
What is the definition of Pharmacokinetics? The study of drug movement throughout the body and how the body deals with this drug.
What is the process of Absorption? this is how the drug moves from its site of administration across body membranes, to circulating fluids.
What is Distribution when referring to drugs in the body? This is basically the transportation of drugs throughout the body.
What are some things in the body that have a high affinity for medication? Bone marrow, teeth, eyes and adipose tissue.
What is a Drug-Protein Complex and how does it affect distribution and absorption? Many drugs bind reversibly to plasma proteins, usually albumin, and these form complexes that are too large to cross capillary membranes and thus cannot reach their target cells. Bound drugs also cannot be excreted by the kidneys.
What is metabolism and give the fancy name for this process. Biotransformation is the process of chemically converting a drug to a form that is more easily removed from the body.
What is the organ most responsible for drug metabolism? The Liver.
What are Conjugates (when referring to drug metabolism)? These are the side chains added on to the drug to make them more water soluble.
What are Prodrugs? These are drugs that do not become active until they are first metabolized by the liver into their active form.
Why is the Enzyme Induction process important when combining drugs? This is the process when a drug will actually increase the liver's normal metabolic rate and this will increase the rate of metabolism for other drugs.
What is the first-pass effect and what is a normal consideration for drugs that are affected by this process in the body? This is when an oral drug is rendered inactive by the normal liver metabolism, thus these drugs need to be administered by a different route (e.g. sublingual, rectal, or parenteral).
What is Excretion when referring to drugs in the body? This is the process of the body removing the drugs from itself.
What is the main organ for excretion? The Kidney.
Other than the urinary system, what are other routes of excretion for drugs? Respiratory system or sweat or breast milk or biliary excretion.
What is the definition of Minimum Effective Concentraion? The amount of drug required to produce a therapeutic effect.
What is the definition of Toxic Concentration? The level of drug that will result in serious adverse effects.
What is the Therapeutic Range of a drug? The concentration of drug between the minimum effective concentration and the toxic concentration.
What is the definition of the Plasma Half-Life of a drug? this is the length of time it takes for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by one-half after being administered.
Why is a loading dose sometimes given? Because sometime giving a higher amount of a drug will speed up the time it takes to reach the plateau level.
What is the definition of Pharmacodynamics? This is how a drug chances in the body. This is the mechanism of the drug action and the relationships between drug concentration and responses in the body.
What number represents the the Median Effective Dose on a frequency distribution curve and what does it mean? 50% and this is the dose required to produce a specific therapeutic response in 50% of a group of patients.
What is the definition for Median Lethal Dose? This is the dose of drug that will be lethal in 50% of a group of animals.
How do you figure out the Therapeutic Index of a drug and what is the difference between a large therapeutic index as opposed to a small therapeutic index? This is the ratio of the median lethal dose to the median effective dose. The higher this ratio, the safer the medication.
What is the difference between the Median Lethal Dose and the Median Toxicity Dose? The Median Toxicity dose is the dose that will produce a given toxicity (not death as in the lethal dose) to 50% of a group of patients.
What is Potency when referring to drugs? A drug that is more potent will produce the same response with a lower dose.
What is efficacy when referring to drugs and how is this different than potency? Efficacy is the term used to say that one drug produces a better therapeutic response than another drug. Potency just refers to the amount of drug producing a sized response, not its ability to produce the better response.
What is a receptor? this is the molecule in the body that the drug binds to in order to produce the drug's effects.
How does an Agonist work? An agonist binds to specific receptors and mimics the effect of the molecule that was supposed to bind to that receptor. Agonists sometime produce a greater response than the body's natural chemical.
How does an Antagonist work? An antagonist will outright block the receptor from allowing anything to bind with it.
What is an idiosyncratic response? This is an unpredictable or unexplained drug reaction.
What is pregnancy risk category A? These drugs have not shown any risk to the mother or fetus.
What is pregnancy risk category B? Animal studies have shown no risk to mother or fetus.
What is pregnancy risk category C? Animal studies HAVE shown a risk to the fetus.
What is pregnancy risk category D? There is a definite risk to the fetus, and human studies have shown this. These drugs may be prescribed ONLY if the benefit to the mother outweighs the risk to the fetus. Alcohol and nicotine are both in risk category D.
What is pregnancy risk category X and give an example? These drugs will mess with the fetus in a bad way. Examples include thalidomide, misoprostol and accutane.
When should a breast feeding mother take medication in order to minimize the drug passing into the milk? Immediately after feeding the infant.
What is the appropriate nursing action to take if you administer the wrong medication to a patient? Report the error to the physician, document the medication in the patient record and complete a report of the error for further follow up and analysis.
What is the definition of addiction? it is an overwhelming compulsion that drives someone to take a drug repetitively despite serious bad consequences.
What is the difference between physical dependence and psychologic dependence? Physical dependence will produce physical withdrawal symptoms if the drug is cut off. There won't be any physical symptoms in psychological dependence, but the user will always have a desire for the drug. Psy Dependence can happen after only one dose.
Created by: joekosch