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Psych 304 Final byu

Late final study guide

Define Individual Tests One subject at a time, examiner records response, scoring requires considerable skill, examiner flexibility can elicit maximum performance if permitted by standardization
What are the advantages of Individual Tests? Provides information beyond the test score, allows the examiner to observe behavior in a standard setting (examiners develop internal norms), allows individual interpretation of test scores
What are the disadvantages of Individual Tests? Expensive, requires great skill
What are the advantages of Group Tests? Cost efficient, minimizes administration and scoring time, requires less examiner skill and training, more objective and reliable scoring procedures, broad application
What are the disadvantages of Group Tests? inflexible, doesn't garner much information
What four things should be kept in mind when using group tests? Use results with caution (never isolation), be suspicious of low scores, consider wide scoring discrepancies as a warning signal, and when in doubt, refer for individual testing
What is an Achievement Test? assess what a person has learned following a course of instruction; i. Evaluate effects of a known/controlled set of experiences, evaluate the product of a course of training, rely heavily on content validation procedures.
What is an Aptitude Test? evaluate a person's potential (e.g., IQ testing); Evaluate the effects of an unknown/uncontrolled set of experiences, evaluate the potential to profit from a course of training, rely heavily on same predictive criterion validity procedures
What is the Flynn Effect? describes the substantial increase in average IQ test scores over generations (IQ gains over time)
What is grade inflation? The phenomenon of rising grades
How has grade inflation affected college admissions? more integrative approach and less weight placed on GPA than previous times
What are the major weaknesses of the SAT & ACT? ; tests have restricted range of GPA predictions, poor predictive power in middle ranges, and value deteriorates with lower SES; poor predictive power of minorities and women
What effect do coaching/preparation courses have on tests like the SAT or GRE? two camps; test developers and course developers; differ on increase significance, but either way score will improve
What are some of the big problems with coaching/preparation courses? Higher scores are more resistant to raising, huge financial time/investment, and rid elimination of SES differences
What is stereotype threat? How does it apply to intelligence scores and college admissions? The experience of anxiety or concern in a situation where a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about their social group.
What is the mean and standard deviation of the GRE? Be able to recognize where scores fall (e.g., know what a score one standard deviation above the mean would be). The mean is 500 and the standard deviation is 100
What is the best combination of predictors of undergraduate GPA? High School GPA and test scores
What is the Raven Progressive Matrices Test? Most popular nonverbal group test. Developed in England to test recruits. Independent of education factors. Used with culturally deprived, non-English speakers. One of the most common stimuli in nonverbal tests are matrices
What is the advantage of the Raven test? No language is necessary
Which test is one of the simplest, quickest, and easy to administer of all ability tests? Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test: make a picture of a man: make the very best picture you can; this involves pencil and paper, gives a rough estimate of the child's intelligence (ages 3-15); scores based on number of items
What is the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and GPA/standardized test scores? Moderate to strong correlations, likely because of restricted resources
What is Personality? Relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behavior that characterize an individual and his/her reactions to the environment
What are Personality Types? Relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behavior that characterize an individual and his/her reactions to the environment
What are Personality Traits? General descriptions of people (extroverted vs. introverted)
What are Personality States? Relatively enduring 'dispositions'; Tendencies to act, think, or feel in a certain manner in any given circumstances
What are Personality Characteristics? non-intellective aspects of human behavior
What is Self Concept? a person's self definition; organized and relatively consistent set of assumptions that a person has about herself/himself
What are the two major strategies for development of personality tests? Deductive (use reasoning and logic to determine meaning of test response) and Empirical (rely on data collection and stat. analysis to determine meaning; experimental research)
What are the deductive strategies for personality test construction? Logical-content (assumes face validity and uses only logical relevance) and theoretical (builds off of theory and attempts to create homogeneous scale, with items only consistent with theory)
What are the Empirical strategies for Personality test construction? Criterion Group (items significantly selected more by criterion group in research) and Factor analytic strategy (use factor analysis to empirically derive the basic dimensions of personality)
What is the Criterion Group Strategy? Empirical strategy, uses data comparing criterion and control groups to gauge discriminating items, also cross validate with another, independent criterion group
What is the Factor Analytic Strategy? Empirical strategy, uses statistical data to derive the basic dimensions of personality; assess how many variables and breaks down factors, which test creators then relate to constructs
What is Cross Validation? Distinguishing items determined for one sample of subjects to represent the criterion group, then checking how well it distinguishes an independent criterion sample--individuals also known to possess the characteristics measured--from the control group
What is the Purpose of the MMPI & MMPI-II? to distinguish normal from abnormal groups and aid in diagnosis of major psychiatric disorders (looks for abnormal pathology); uses both theory and empirical research
What are the three scale types of the MMPI? Validity Scale (information about testing approach), Clinical (identifies psychological disorders by score patterns), and Content (items grouped empirically into related specific content areas
What reading level is required for both the MMPI and MMPI-II? 6th grade level for I and 8th grade level for II
What are the three validity scales of the MMPI? Lie scale, L (attempt to put positive spin), the Infrequency Scale (F)(double questions to test if 'faking bad', and K Scale (deny problems--helps identify psych's with normal test patterns)
What is Code Typing on the MMPI? Benefits? Meehl's two-point law: advantages of analyzing two highest scales--showed specific configural patterns/two-point codes; coding strategies: Lots of varieties, but popular to look at the two highest scales. Associated with various characteristics/disorders
Is there much empirical research on the MMPI and MMPI-II? Yes, 1000's of studies
What are problems of factor analytic strategy? The subjective nature of nature of naming factors , blind groupings by computers, and no definite criteria or rules exist for naming factors
What are the tree types of variance of factory analytic strategy? Common Variance: amount of variance a particular variance holds in common with other variables; Unique Variance: factors uniquely measured by the variable; Error Variance: variance attributed by error
What kind of test-development strategy (or strategies) were used to develop the NEO-PI-R? What does NEO stand for? Factor analysis and theory for item development; Neuroticism, extroversion, openness
Name and understand the five personality dimensions on the NEO-PI-R Neuroticism: Anxious/insecure; Extroversion: sociable or withdrawal; Openness: curious, open to new experiences; Conscientiousness: persevering, responsible dependability; Agreeableness: Cooperative; warmth & cooperative vs unpleasant & disagreeable
Define Projecting and give example Presenting what is seen/sensed in a stimulus, thought to reflect inner workings of the mind; interpretation thought to reveal inner mind; Rorschach, TAT
What is the Projective Hypothesis? attempts to understand an ambiguous or vague stimulus. Stimulus interpretation reflects needs, feelings, experiences, prior conditioning, thought processes, etc.
Are the Rorschach and TAT frequently used in the clinical setting now? 2 of 10 most widely used tests in clinical settings
Describe psychometric properties of Rorschach poor; lack of normative data, unreliable scoring criteria, lack of relationships with psychological disorders, poor incremental validity, the problem of 'R' score goes up with increased responding), overpathologizing
What issues are raised regarding the Rorschach and overpathologizing? wrongly identifies more than half of normal individuals as emotionally disturbed; problem of poor specificity
What is the problem of 'R'? no limit to the number of responses, and the score goes up with increased responding. Also, there is the problem of "space responses" (responding to the white spaces within or around the inkblot instead of responding to the inkblot)
What is the alternate inkblot test? The Holtzman, standardized and better reliability, with good norms, but creator refuses to exaggerate abilities of test and it remains unpopular
Know the differences between the Rorschach and the TAT See review
What do reliability and validity studies of the TAT suggest? Psychometrically unsound--too subjective and lacks standardization , but study of specific variables produces reliable results, but pretty difficult to prove validity
What is the Barnum Effect? Tendency for people to accept very general or vague characterization of themselves and take them to be accurate
What is Confirmation Bias? Tendency for people to favor information that confirms their preconceptions
How do Barnum Effect and Confrimation Bias both apply to projective tests? no matter what is said in the tests, the psychologist can apply it to the person taking the test (often involve statements that could be true of anyone in the world)
Compare and Contrast cognitive behavioral and traditional assessment methods see review
What are the steps in cognitive behavioral assessment? identify critical behaviors, determine if excesses or deficits, evaluate baseline (frequency, duration, intensity), attempt to change behaviors to appropriate levels
What are behavioral excesses? Behavioral Deficits? Behavioral excess is when a behavior occurs too frequently (e.g. OCD); Behavioral deficit is when a behavior occurs too infrequently (e.g. sexual aversion disorder; eating)
What is the goal of the functional approach? the Functional approach assumes that both normal and disordered behaviors develop according to the same laws and differ only in extremes; evaluate internal/external factors and deal with them objectively
Why is Human behavior is often determined by beliefs and expectations rather than reality? Cognitive viewpoint assumes that human behavior is often determined by beliefs and expectations rather than reality (i.e., self statements and beliefs will influence actions)
What is the premise behind the cognitive functional analysis? what a person says to himself/herself plays a critical role in behavior (e.g., internal dialogue) ; self statements influence diverse behaviors, from coping behavior, assertiveness, & athletic performance
What is the concern of functional analysis? ascertaining the environmental factors that precede behavior (environmental antecedents) as well as those that maintain behavior (environmental consequences) , along with internal antecedents and consequences (cognitive)
What are psychophysiological procedures? use such indicators as heart rate, blood pressure, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature to assess psychological problems. The physiological data are used to draw inferences about the psychological state of the individual; no voluntary measures
What is the tenet of psychophysiological procedures? behavioral, cognitive, and emotional phenomenon are often functions of physiological processes
What weaknesses are inherent in psychophysiological evaluations? artifacts (non-existing recorded events), direct measurement difficult (distortions), effect of initial values (pre-stimulus strength)
What did Dr. Weizenbaum name his computer when studying human-computer interaction? Eliza; mildly effective because imitated Rogerian psychotherapist
What advantages are provided through the use of the internet for psychological testing? massive amounts of data; web data shown to be adequate; similar results to P&P, less error in data collection, more closely matched to intended sample, more self-disclosure, ease of recruiting, easier to analyze
What disadvantages are provided through the use of the internet for psychological testing? Problems standardizing data (location, computers, environment); impartial administrator (can't tell if they are really tired, etc.)
What types of tests are possible only through the computer? Virtual Reality: safer, less embarassing, cheaper and less time consuming; efficient, because engender similar responses
What is computer-adaptive testing? After each response the computer updates the estimation of the test taker's ability and only gives necessary items; adapt/change to ability; reduces number of items necessary
What are the strengths and weaknesses associated with computer-adaptive testing? Strengths: can go at your own pace, accurate scores, efficiency increased, expenses reduced; weaknesses: can't go back, question of equity if different items, test taker will recognize progression
What are signal detection procedures? signal is presented and the subject reports whether he/she saw it; the signal can be varied in strength, number, or pairing.
What is the goal of signal detection procedures? suggests that you can use these methods to evaluate psychological disorders and perhaps detect them in early stages; Control: 150 mls, vs. Schizo: 300 mls (information processing)
What are the advantages of signal detection procedures? Scoring can be simplified, administration can be easily standardized, examiner effects can be easily minimized, has been adapted for personal computers, results can be readily verified from psychophysical and signal-detection procedures;
Define Stress the response to situations that involve demands, constraints, or opportunities (COD)
Define Anxiety an emotional state marked by worry, apprehension, and tension
What is the STAI? State-trait anxiety Inventory (STAI); gives two separate scores, correlates well with other measures, and clearly discriminates between two factors
What is State Anxiety vs. Trait Anxiety? State Anxiety: the emotional reaction that varies by situation; Trait Anxiety: personality characteristics (test-retest)
What is Social Support? Social supports and resources serve as significant buffers for stressful events and moderators of psychological and physical well being (tangible and intangible)
What is the effect of Social Support on longevity/quality of life? helps mediate stressful life events, speeds recovery from illness, and increases the likelihood a person will follow doctor advice
What is the Quality of Life assessment? diseases are evaluated in terms of the degree to which they affect life quality and expectancy; one can evaluate treatments/products by amount of improvement they produce in quality of life
What are 2 common themes of quality of life assessment? Avoidance of death (no premature mortality) and quality of life (disease/disability)
How does the WHO define health? a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease
What is the SF-36? Quality of Life: Medical Outcome Study Short Form; 8 health concepts: Physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health perceptions, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, mental health
What are the Strengths/Weaknesses of the SF-36? Strengths: brief, good psychometrics, quickly evaluated, good norms; weaknesses: does not have age specific questions (not appropriate for all ages)
What is Decision Theory and how is it applied? Quality adjusted life years (QALYS), cost effectiveness analysis for benefits of treatment, comprehensive measurement for overall benefit
What is Clinical Neuropsychology Study human behaviors, emotions, &thoughts, and how they relate to the brain; particularly the damaged brain; relate brain dysfunction/damage to observable problems
What fields does CN overlap? Neurology (sensations/perceptions/motor movements), psychiatry (mood and adaptions), and psychometrics (use of psychological tests)
How does CN differ from other fields? It focuses on attention, memory, learning, language and communication, spacial integration, and cognitive flexibility
What are some clinical neuropsychology jobs? Private practice, hospitals, academia
What types of patients are clinical neuropsychologist? Neurological, psychiatric, learning disabled, dementia, and rehab patients
What are advantages of CN practices? Can find problems missed by imaging, detect early states of disease, evaluate individual cognitive issues, and sensitivity/specificity in diagnosis
What are disadvantages of CN practices? take more time, many more factors must be taken into account beyond physiology
What is a flexible battery? assessment is individually tailored for each patient (advantage); 'Hypothesis Testing" (hypotheses are generated through the course of assessment and tested with specific tests); disadvantage: if hypothesis is wrong, get nowhere
What is a fixed battery? a predetermined set of tests are used for every patient (advantage), this allows for examination of the same cognitive and behavioral functioning in each individual (advantage), disadvantage: always test for the same thing (cannot be tailored)
What is the general order of presentation for a neuropsychological test battery? Why this order? Build from least complex to more complex; it's a screening measure, to first determine the capabilities of the subject
What are some problems with the current neuropsychological tests of sensation and perception? Few standardized tests of sensation and perception, mostly bedised neurological examinations of auditory, verbal, and tactile functioning
What is Perception? awareness and understanding of one's environment through sensory information
What is Sensation? perception or awareness of stimuli through the senses
What is Attention? concentrating (focusing) on one aspect of your environment while ignoring other things
what is Memory? ability to store, retain, and recall information and experiences
What is Executive Function? the psychological term for functions carried out by the prefrontal cortex area of the brain, e.g., like the conductor of an orchestra; executive function sorts stimuli and selectively attends to what is relevant
What is Working Memory? the ability to actively hold information in the mind needed to do complex tasks, such as reasoning, comprehension, and learning
What is the difference between working memory and long term memory? actively held, limited capacity, temporal, verbally assessed, while long term is stored for a long time with huge capacity
How is brain function localized? Some brain functions take place in certain areas that can be disrupted by damage done to that area (i.e., damage to the hippocampus would affect memory, damage to the cerebellum would affect balance)
Memorize that hemisphere specialization slide woman memorize it
What is an Operational Definition? identifies one or more specific conditions or events and then tells the researcher how to measure those events. An OD must be valid and reliable
What is a Hypothetical Construct? an explanatory variable which is not directly observable; consists of groups of functionally related behaviors, attitudes, processes, and experiences
What is Aptitude? refers to the potential learning or acquiring of a specific skill
What is Achievement? refers to pervious learning (e.g., a spelling achievement test (a spelling bee)
What is Intelligence? refers to a person's general potentital to solve problems, adapt to changing circumstances, thinking abstractly, and profit from experience
What are the four scales of measurement? Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio (know each of these)
What is the regression formula? Understand components/application Y = a + bx; Y = measured, a = intercept, b = slope, x = independent
What components make up the Classical Test Score Theory? CTST: assumes each person has a true score that would be obtained if no error; X (observed score) = T (true score) + E(error); rubber yardstick
In what ways can error impact observed scores? Situational Factors: such as loud noises while the test is being administered; the room may be too hot or too cold ; ill or depressed; items on the test may not be representative of the domain
What are the three estimations of Test Reliability? Test Re-retest, parallel forms, and internal consistency (similar subsets)
What is the Carry-Over Effect? when the first testing session influences scores from the second testing session
What is Reliability? How to Improve? Extent to which a score or measure is free of measurement error; making a test longer or discarding bad items
What is the relationship between reliability and validity? Reliability is necessary but not sufficient for validity
What is systematic error in a test called? Why is this negative? If an individual source of error consistently increases or decreases the true score by exactly the same amount each time, it is referred to as a systematic error. Obscures true score.
What is the relationship between reliability and validity? Reliability is necessary but not sufficient for validity
What is validity? Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure.
What are the three main types of validity? Construct Validity (), Content Validity (), Criterion Validity
What is Construct Validity? demonstrates an association between the test scores and the prediction of a theoretical trait.
What is Content Validity? the test represent the entire range of possible items the test should cover
What is Criterion Validity? test has demonstrated its effectiveness in predicting criterion or indicators of a construct (concurrent and predictive)
What is the validity coefficient? degree of correlation between the test and a criterion
What is the validity coefficient squared? the percentage of variance between the assessment instrument and the other relevant variable (how much variance is accounted for)
What is Construct Validity? Why is it the 'mother of all validities"? Construct validity refers to the extent to which operationalizations of a construct (i.e., practical tests developed from a theory) do actually measure what the theory says they do. Determines focus of test.
What are the two types of evidence for construct-related validity? Convergent and discriminant validity
What is Convergent Validity? refers to the degree to which a measure is correlated with other measures that it is theoretically predicted to correlate with
What is Discriminant Validity? describes the degree to which the operationalization does not correlate with other operationalizations that it theoretically should not be correlated with.
What is Incremental Validity? type of validity that is used to determine whether a new psychometric assessment will increase the predictive ability of an existing method of assessment
What is the relationship between test examiner race and intelligence scores? Very little effect; highly standardized
What are expectant effects? What is their other name? Rosenthal Effects: Results (data) is affected by what the experimenter expects to find. Not just for human subject
What is the Halo Effect? the tendency to ascribe positive attributes independently of the observed behavior (positive and negative halos)
What is General Standoutishness? One prominent characteristic can bias the interviewer’s judgment.
What is Social Facilitation? when interview participants affect each other's mood; Tendency to act like those around us; respond with same kinds of moods/emotions
What is positive manifold? when a set of diverse ability tests are administered to large population samples, the correlations are positive
What is g? Intelligence: consists of one general factor (g) plus a large number of specific factors; the concept of general intelligence can be best represented by a single score, g, that presumably reflects performance on a diverse set of tests
What is Fluid Intelligence? abilities that allow us to think, reason, and acquire new knowledge
What is Crystallized Intelligence the knowledge and intelligence that we have already acquired--that we already know
What is Sensitivity? Accuracy of the test in identifying delayed development (finding true positives; more likely to get false negative)
What is Specificity? Accuracy of test in identifying individuals who are not delayed (avoiding false negatives, more likely to get false positive)
Created by: seeashbashrun