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NIC written Guide

The work of Interpreters

A-Language (L1) one's first language, usually the language your parents speak although this is not always the case, also known as mother tongue or native language
B-Language (L2) refers to one's second language, one acquired by living in a country where that language is spoken, by interacting frequently with people using that language or by studying the language formally
C-Language a language one can "manage" to comprehend what is spoken/signed, however the individual speaks/signs with a heavy accent, improper grammatical structure and frequent semantic errors.
Source Language (SL) the language in which the original message is conveyed
Target Language (TL) The language into which the original message is interpreted.
Processing Time Lag time. Decalage. The time used by the interpreter to complete the analysis of the SL utterance and to search for cultural and linguistic equivalnts in the TL
Transliteration The result of taking the SL message, identify meaning and speaker intent by analuzing the linguistic and paralinguistic elements of the message and expressing them in a diff. form of the same language.
Dyanmic Equivalence in an interpreted event, maintaining the "chemistry" between a speaker and her/his audience that allows a connection to be made and the speaker's goals to be accomplished.
Translation changing a message from the frozen form of one language into the frozen form of another language.
Sight Translation changing a message from the frozen form of one language into another signed or spoken language done on first sight, without the time normally required to prepare a formal translation.
Modality the channel through which a message is expressed, specifically spoken or signed.
Interpreter a term used to identify an individual who interprets; this term may also be used generically to include those who transliterate (see transliterate).
Simultaneous Interpretation the process of interpreting/transliterating into the target language/code at the same time that the source language message is being delivered.
Consecutive Interpretation the process of interpreting into the target language after the speaker completes one or more ideas in the source language and pauses while the interpreter transmits that information; more accurate than simultaneous interpretion.
Clients or Consumers a term used to refer to those for whom sign language interpreters work, includes both Deaf and hearing consumers.
Oral transliteration making spoken English visible for an oral Deaf individual; includes repeating what is being said without speech, selecting words that are most easily speech-readable and sometimes using a gesture for clarification.
Prosody the rhythm of a language including stress, inflection, intonation, pausing and phrasing that help listeners determine meaning and predict what the speaker will say next.
Created by: Signer9308