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Upper Extremities AP

Upper Extremities: Digits, Hands, Wrist

QuestionAnswer
AP Thumb IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: Internally rotate hand until posterior surface of thumb is on IR. CR: 1st MCP
LAT Thumb IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: Pronate hand and place 2-5th finger into a loose fist. CR: 1st MCP
OBL Thumb IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: Place hand in pronated position. CR: 1st MCP
PA Fingers: 2nd-5th IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: Pronate hand; palmar surface in contact with IR. Keep digits extended. CR: PIP of finger
LAT Fingers: 2nd-5th IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: 2nd digit: lateral(radial) aspect over IR. CR: PIP 3rd digit place lateral or medial aspect over IR. CR: PIP 4th-5th digit: place medial(ulna) aspect over IR. CR: PIP
OBL Fingers: 2nd-5th IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: 2nd digit: medial rotation to place affected digit into a 45 degree oblique. CR: PIP
PA Hand IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: Pronate hand and spread fingers slightly. CR: 3rd MCP
OBL Hand IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: Pronate and rotate hand laterally 45 degrees. Best done with wedge or step-sponge. CR: 3rd MCP
LAT Hand IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: Place hand in lateral position with medial aspect on IR. CR: 2nd MCP
LAT Hand: Fingers may be placed in what positions 1. extension 2. normal flexion 3. feathered position (most used )
PA Wrist IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT Position: Pronate hand and flex fingers to place wrist in contact with IR. CR: mid-carpal
OBL Wrist IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT Position: From PA, rotate wrist laterally 45 degrees. Use wedge songe or "OK" sign to support wrist. CR: mid-carpal
Wrist LAT IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT Flex elbow 90 degrees. From PA hand, rotate hand and wrist 90 degrees to place medial aspect of hand in contact with IR. CR: mid-carpal
Wrist PA "Axial" Scaphoid, ULNAR DEVIATION (no angle) IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT Position: Flex elbow 90 degrees. Pronate and deviate hand away from radius. CR: Perp. to scaphoid.
Wrist PA "Axial" Scaphoid, ULNAR DEVIATION IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT Position: Flex elbow 90 degrees.Pronate and deviate hand away from radius. CR angled 10-15 degrees proximally to long axis of arm. CR: Perp to scaphoid
Wrist PA Axial Scaphoid, "Stecher" Method IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT Position: Pronate and elevate hand with 20 degrees angled sponge (or elevate distal end of IR 20 degrees, placing sponge under IR) CR: Perp. to scaphoid.
AP Forearm IR Size: 11x14 LW; 14x17 LW (long forearm Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Erect/Recumbent: Seated Position: Humerous, elbow & forearm parallel and in contact with table. Hand supinated CR: at mid-shaft. epicondyles parallel to
LAT Forearm IR Size: 11x14 LW; 14x17 LW (long forearm) Non-Grid: TT; SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Erect/Recumbent: Seated Position: Humerus, elbow & forearm parallel and in contact with table. Elbow flexed 90 degrees. Hand placed in lat position w/epi
AP Elbow IR Size: 8x10 LW Non-Grid: TT SID: 40" Marker: RT or LT (outer border) Position: Seated. Humerus, elbow & forearm parallel and in contact with table. Hand supinated & epicondyles parallel to IR. CR:Elbow joint
projection of knee best demonstrates the intercondylar fossa Holmblad
methods to examine the intercondylar fossa Holmblad Canp Coventry Beclere
ASIS to TT (angulation) < 19 cm 5 degrees caudad 19 - 24 cm none perpendicular > 24 cm 5 degrees cephalad
CR angulation required for PA axial weight-bearing projection (Rosenberg Method) 10 degrees caudad
knee flexion required for PA axial weight-bearing projection (Rosenberg Method) 45 degrees
knee flexion required for PA axial projection (Holmblad Method) 60 degrees to 70 degrees
which oblique projection of the foot best demonstrates the majority of the tarsal bones AP oblique with medial rotation
which oblique projection of the foot best demonstrates the navicular and the first and second cuneiforms with minimal superimposition AP oblique with lateral rotation
roatation can be determined on a radiograph of an AP foot projection by the near-equal distance between the second and fifth metatarsals
which projection tends to place the foot into a truer lateral position lateromedial
which type of study should be performed to best evaluate the condition of the longitudinal arches of the foot AP and lateral weight-bearing projections
how should the CR be angled from the long axis of the foot for the plantodorsal axial projection of the calcaneus 40 degrees cephalad
which calcaneus structure should appear medially on a well-positioned plantodorsal projection sustentaculum tali
where is the CR placed for a lateraal projection of the calcaneus 1.5 inches inferior to the medial malleolus
which joint surface of the ankle is not typically visualized with a correctly positioned AP projection of the ankle lateral surface of joint
how much (if any) should the foot and ankle be rotated for an AP mortise projection of the ankle 15 degrees to 20 degrees (medially)
which projection of the ankle best demonstrates a possible fracture of the lateral malleolus 45 degrees AP oblique with medial rotation
with a true lateral projection of the ankle, the lateral malleolus is: projected over the posterior aspect of the distal tibia
which projections of the ankle require forced inversion and eversion movements AP stress projections
what us the basic positioning routine for a study of the tibia and fibula AP and lateral projections
to include both joint for a lateral projection of the tibia and fibula for an adult, the technologist may place the cassette ___________ in relation to the part diagonally
what is tthe recommended CR angulation for an AP projection of the knee for a patient with thick thigh and buttocks (i.e. measuring greater than 24 cm) 3 degrees to 5 degree cephalad
where is the CR centered for an AP projection of the knee .5 inch distal to apex of patella
which basic projection of a knee best demonstrates the proximal fibula free of superimposition AP oblique, 45 degrees medial rotation
for the AP oblique projection of the knee, the ___________ rotation best visualizes the lateral condyle of the tibia and the head and neck of the fibula medial(internal)
what is the recommended CR placement for a lateral knee position on a tall, slender male patient with a narrow pelvis 5 degrees cephalad
how much flexion is recommended for a lateral projection of the knee 20 degrees to 30 degrees
which positioning error is present if the distal borders of the femoral condyles are not superimposed on a radiograph of a lateral knee improper angle of the CR
which positioning error is present if the posterior portions of the femoral condyles are not superimposed on a lateral knee radiograph overrotation or underrotation of the knee
which anatomic structure of the femur can be used to determine which rotation error (overrotation or underrotation) is present on a slightly rotated lateral knee radiograph adductor tubercle on posterolateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle
which special projection of the knee best evaluates the knee joint for cartilage degeneration or deformities AP or PA weight-bearing knee
AP knee stress projections are performed to demonstrate: medial or collateral ligament damage
how much flexion of the lower leg is required for the Camp-Coventry projection when the CR is angled 40 degrees caudad 40 degrees flexion
why is the posteroanterior (PA) axial projection for the intercondylar fossa recommended instead of an AP axial projection distortion caused by CR andle and increased OID for AP axial projection
what type of CR angulation is required for the PA axial weight-bearing projection (Rosenberg method) 10 degrees caudad
how much flexion of the knees is required for the PA axial weight-bearing projection (Rosenberg method) 45 degrees
how much knee flexion is required for the PA axial projection (Holmblad method) 60 degrees to 70 degrees
what type of CR angle is required for the PA axial (Holmblad method) none; CR is perpendiculat to IR
to place the interepicondylar line parallel to the IR for a PA projection of the patella, the lower limb must be rotated approximately 5 degrees internally (True or False) true
how much part flexion is recommended for a lateral projection of the patella 5 degrees to 10 degrees
how much CR angle from the long axis of the femora is required for a Merchant bilateral projection 30 degrees from horizontal
how much part flexion is required for the Hughston method 45 degrees to 55 degrees
how much part flexion is required for the Settegast method 90 degrees
what type of CR angle is required for the superoinferior sitting tangential method for patella none; CR is perpendicular to IR
can be performed using a wheelchair or lowered radiographic table Holmblad method
patient prone; requires 90 degrees knee flexion Settegast method
patient prone with 40 degrees to 50 degrees knee flexion and with equal 40 degrees to 50 degrees caudad CR angle Camp-Coventry method
IR is placed on a foot stool to minimize the OID superoinferior sitting tangential method
patient prone with 45 degrees knee flexion and 10 degrees to 20 degrees cephalad CR angle from long axis of lower leg Hughston method
patient supine with cassette resting on midthighs inferosuperior axial for patellofemoral joint
patient supine with 40 degrees knee flexion and with 30 degrees caudad CR angle from horizopntal Merchant method
how much foot rotation is required for the AP oblique, medial roatation projection of the foot 30 degrees to 40 degrees
what another term for the AP projection of the foot plantodorsal projection
what CR angle generally required for the AP projection of the foot 10 degrees posterior
which projection of the foot best demonstrates the cuboid AP oblique medial rotation
where is the CR placed for a plantodorsal axial projection of the calcaneou base of 3rd metatarsal
which ankle projection is best for demonstating the mortise of the ankle AP oblique (15 degrees to 20 degrees medial rotation)
which imaginary plane should be placed parallel to the IR for an AP projection of the knee Interepicondylar
which joint spce should be open or almost open for a well-positioned AP oblique knee projection with medial rotation proximal tibiofibular
a 5 degrees to 7 degrees cephalad angle of the CR for a lateral priojection of the knee helps superimpose the distal borders of the medial and lateral condyles of the femur (T/F) true
why is a PA projection of the patella preferred to an AP projection 1.less OID 2.less distortion of patella 3.less magnification of patella
which specific position error is present when the left iliac wing is elongated on an AP pelvis radiograph ratation toward left side
which specific positioning error is present when the left obturator foramen is more open that the right side on an AP pelvis radiograph right rotation
how many degrees are femur abducted (from the vertical plane) for the bilateral frog-leg projection 40 degrees to 45 degrees
where is the CR placed for a unilateral frog-leg projection midfemoral neck
which cassette size should be used for an adult bilateral frog-leg projection 14 x 17 inches crosswise
where is the CR placed for an AP bilateral frog-leg projection 1 inches superior to the symphysis pubis
which CR angle is required for the "outlet" projection (Taylor method) for a female patient 30 degrees to 45 degrees cephalad
how much obliquity if the body is required for the Judet method 45 degrees
what type of CR angle is used for a PA axial oblique (Teufel) projection
how is the pelvis (body) positioned for a PA axial oblique (Teufek) projection
any orthopedic device or appliance of the hip should be seen in it entirety on an AP hip radiography(T/F) true
the axiolateral (inferosuperior) projection is designed for ______ situation traumatic
how is the unaffected leg positioned for the axiolateral hip projection it is flexed and elevated to prevent it from being superimposed over the affected hip
an AP pelvis projection using 90kV and 8mAs results in a patient dose of approximately 30% less than a projection using 80kV and 12 mAs(for both male and females) true
during an axiolateral (inferosuperior) projection of the hip, a male patient receives more than 20 times the gonadal dose than the female true
the modified axiolateral requires the CR to be angled ____ posteriorly form horizontal 15 to 20 degrees
which special projection of the hip demonstrates the anterior and posterior rims of the acetabulum and the ilioischial and iliopubic columns; which CR andle (if any) is used for this projection posterior oblique projections of acetabulum (Judet method); 0 degrees(perpendicular)
what is the name of a special AP axial projection of the pelvis used to assess trauma to pubic and ischial structures Ap axial outlet projection (Taylor method)
axiolateral (inferosuperior) Danelius-Miller
modified axiolateral Clement-Nakayama
bilateral or unilateral frog-leg modified Cleaves
PA axial oblique for acetabulum Teufel
AP axial for pelvic "outlet" bones Taylor
posterior oblique for acetabulum Judet
what is the optimal amount of hip abduction applied for the unilateral "frog-leg" projection to demonstrate the femoral neck without distortion 20 degrees to 30 degrees f rom vertical
the Lauenstein/Hickey method for the unilateral "frog-leg projection will produce distoration of the femoral neck (T/F) true
how much is the cassette tilted for the modfied axiolateral projection of the hip 15 degrees
gonadal shielding can be used for males for the axiolateral (inferosuperior) projection of the hip (T/F) false
which indicates that the proximal femurs are in position of a true AP projection limited view of the lesser trochanter in profile
what type of CR angle is required when using the ATaylor method for a male patient 30 degrees to 45 degrees cephalad
how much is the pelvis and/or thorax rotated for a PA axial oblique (Teufel method)for acetabulum 35 degrees to 40 degrees toward affected side
what type of CR angle is required for the PA axial oblique (Teufel method) for acetabulum 12 degrees cephalad
the unilateral frog-leg projection (modified Cleaves method) is intended for nontraumatic hip situation true
Centering for the AP pelvis projection is 1 inch, or 2.5 cm, superior to the symphsis pubis projection (T/F) false; midway between ASIS and symphsis pubis
what type of CR angle is required for the Judet method none; CR is perpendicular
the modified axiolateral (Clements-Nakayama method) is classified as a nontraumatic lateral hip projection false
Created by: dawn2000