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Atoms, Bonding, PT

Periodic Table of the Elements, Atoms, and Bonding

Electrons held most loosely in an atom? Valence Electrons
True or false: The number of VEs in an atom determines the ways in which the atom can bond. True
When atoms form bonds, electrons may be what two things between atoms? Transferred or shared
How is the periodic table organized? By atomic number
What is a row called on the periodic table? Period
Number of electrons does what across a period? Increases by one
When metals react with other elements, what happens to the metal's valence electrons? Metal loses valence electrons
What happens to the reactivity of metals from left to right on the periodic table? Decreases
How many VEs can atoms of nonmetals have? Four or more
In what two ways can nonmetals combine with other elements? Gaining or sharing electrons
How can you tell whether or not an element will react with other elements? How full the outermost energy level is of valence electrons
An atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge is called a what? An ion
Ions that are made of more than one atom are called what? Polyatomic
What is an ionic bond? The attraction between two oppositely charged ions
From what does an ionic bond result? A positive/negative attraction
When does the end of a name end in -ide? When the negative ion is a single element (not polyatomic)
Three characteristic properties of ionic compounds? Hard/brittle crystals, high melting points, conduct electricity when dissolved or melted
An orderly 3-D arrangement formed by ions is called what? A crystal
Why do ionic compounds have high melting points? Bonds are strong and require a lot of energy for the ions to break away from one another
Ionic bonds are strong enough to cause all ionic compounds to be what at room temp? Solids
Why do ionic compounds conduct electricity when they are dissolved in water? When dissolved, the bonds between ions are broken, allowing the ions to move freely and conduct current
What is a covalent bond? A chamical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
Molecular compounds contain what kind of atoms? Covalently bonded
True or False: Molecular compounds are poor conductors of electricity when dissolved. True
How do some molecular compounds have a slight electrical charge? Atoms of some elements pull more strongly on shared electrons than other, causing some molecular compounds to have a charge.
In what kind of covalent bond are electrons shared unequally? Equally? Polar, Nonpolar
How can a molecule be nonpolar overall and still contain polar bonds? If one type of atom attracts electrons more strongly than the other
Are water molecules polar or nonpolar? Polar
Why don't water and oil mix? Nonpolar oil molecules have little attraction to polar water molecules, water is more attracted to itself than to the oil
What causes oil to mix with the water? One end of detergent molecules is nonpolar to attract to the oily dirt on clothes. The other end is ionic bonds, attracted to polar water molecules.
What is an alloy? A material made of two or more elements that has the properties of a metal
Four properties of metals? Changes in shape, electrical and heat conductivity, and luster
Atoms of most metals have how many VEs? One, two, or three
What does a metal crystal consist of? Positively charged ions, freely drifting valence electrons, metallic bonds
What is a metallic bond? An attraction between a positive metal ion and the surrounding electrons
What does the phrase "sea of electrons" describe? The ease with which metals can change shape, conductivity of heat and electricity and luster
How do you make an isotope? By changing the atom's number of neutrons
Isotope symbol? Symbol name, superscript mass number, subscript atomic number
Isotope notation? Element symbol-new mass number
Created by: reneslacis