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GCSE 1. Population

Population structure How the population is composed of different age groups and genders
Elderly dependents People over 65 (Pensioners)
Child dependents People under the age of 16 who are at school and therefore dependent (14 in many LEDCs)
Infant mortality Death of children under the age of 1 per 1000 live births
Life expectancy The average lengthy of life, measured by the health standards in year of birth
Economically active People of working age (16-65 in UK). These provide the taxes to support the dependent
Death rate The number of people dying per 1000 population
Birth rate The number of babies born per 1000 population
Fertility rate The average number of babies born to a woman
Population Pyramid A graph which measures age groups and gender
Dependency ratio The number of dependents for each economically active person
Family Planning A government scheme to help families consider the number of children they will have, to use birth control
Contraception Methods to prevent preganancy such as condoms and the pill
Overpopulation When the number of people exceeds the resources
Demographic transition model This graph shows how birth rates and death rates change as a country develops
Baby boom When a larger number of children are born - often following a war
Urbanisation A growing percentage of the population living in towns and cities (different to urban growth)
Rural to urban migration Movement from the countryside to cities
Migration The permanent movement from one place to another, internal or external from a country
Origin The source of the people moving (migrants)
Destination Where migrants wish to live
Asylum Seekers People seeking safety in another country, fearing death or discrimination if they return
Refugees People escaping into another country, from war or natural disasters
Immigration People moving into a country
Emigration People moving out of a country
Push factors The reasons at the origin that cause people to leave
Pull factors Thje reasons which attract migrants to their destination
Economic migrant A person whose reasons for moving are based on money and improving their standard of living (eg Polish workers in the UK)
Shanty towns Low cost, self built housing in many LEDC cities which cannot cope with the number of migrants from the countryside (eg Dharavi in Mumbai and 'kampungs' in Indonesia)
Self Help Schemes A scheme where materials are provided by city council but migrants complete improvements to the shanty towns themselves
Counterurbanistion When people leave the big cities to move to more rural areas on the outskirts or less densely populated regions (eg London to South West)
Megacity Cities over 10 million people, aminly found in LEDCs as a result of rural urban migration
Replacement rate 2.1 - the fertility rate needed for enough children to be born to balance out the dying
Natural increase The difference between birth and death rate
Greying population An increase in the number of elderly dependents due to increasing life expectancy
Created by: Rayrayy



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