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pharm ch. 4 antibiot

pharm ch. 4 antibiotics

QuestionAnswer
WHAT ARE BACTERIA SINGLE CELL ORGANISMS
HOW DOES BACTERIA AFFECT HUMANS PENETRATE AND COLONIZE TISSUE,ESTABLISH INFECTION THAT MAY CAUSE TISSUE DAMAGE
HOW DOES THE BODY'S IMMUNE SYSTEM RESPOND TO INFECTION (FIGHT BACK) RESULTS IN FEVER AND INFLAMMATION
ANAEROBIC BACTERIA SURVIVE WITHOUT OXYGEN
AEROBIC BACTERIA NEED OXYGEN
DEFINE INFECTION CONDITION WHERE BACTERIA GROW IN BODY TISSUE AND CAUSE TISSUE DAMAGE TO HOST BY THIER PRESENCE OR BY THE TOXINS THEY PRODUCE
SIGNS OF INFECTION TEMP 101 WBC COUNT ABOVE 12,000/MM
TOXIN THEY PRODUCE C-DIFF, BOTULISM, TETANUS, WHEN BACTERIA KILLED THE SPORES BURST AND TOXIN RELEASED
SUPER BUG MERSA - METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
SUPER INFECTIONS CAN'T USE REGULAR TREATMENT (GET VANCOMYCIN)
SUPER BUG VRE - VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS
SUPERINFECTION A NEW INFECTION COMPLICATTING THE COURSE OF THERAPY OF AN EXISTING INFECTION - MAY OCCUR -
SUPERINFECTIONS OCCUR MICROORGANISM BECOMES RESISTANT TO AN ANTI-INFECTIVE OR DESTROYS AND ORGANISM THAT IS A PART OF THE NORMAL FLORA ALLOWING ANOTHER MICROORGANISM TO FLOURISH (SIMPLE EXAMPLE YEAST)
ANTIBIOTIC A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE WITH THE ABILITY TO KILL(BACTERICIDAL)OR INHIBIT THE GROWTH(BACTERIOSTATIC) OF ORGANISMS
EMPERICAL TREATMENT TREATING WITHOUT KNOWING DIAGNOSIS OR SPECIFIC PATHOGEN
BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS COVER MULTIPLE SPECIES OF BACTERIA
ANTIBIOTICS WORK IN SIX WAYS 1ST BLOCK PROTEIN FORMATION: MACROLIDES, TETRACYCLINES, AMINOGLYOCOSIDES
ANTIBIOTICS WORK IN SIX WAYS 2ND INHIBIT CELL WALL FORMATION: PENICILLINS, CEPHALOSPORINS
ANTIBIOTICS WORK IN SIX WAYS 3RD INTERFERE WITH DNA FORMATION: NALIDIXIC ACID, QUINOLONES
ANTIBOITICS WORK IN SIX WAYS 4TH PREVENT FOLIC ACID SYNTHESIS: SULFONAMIDES
ANTIBOITICS WORK IN SIX WAYS 5TH DISRUPTING CELL MEMBRANES: CYCLIC LIPOPEPTIDES
ANTIBOITICS WORK IN SIX WAYS 6TH DISRUPTING DNA STRUCTURE: METRONIDAZOLE
GENERAL RULE WITH ANTIBOITICS TAKE ON EMPTY STOMACH FOR FASTER ABSORPTION, FINISH ALLL MEDICATION
ANTIBIOTICS THAT ABSORB BETTER W/FOOD NITROFURANTION, CEFUROXIME, ERYTHROMYCIN AND AMOXICILLIAN CLAVULANTE POTASSIUM. (WILL MAKE YOU SICK)
PREVENTING FOLIC ACID SYNTHESIS SULFONAMIDES
IMPAIRING CELL WALL FORMATION PENICILLINS AND CEPHALOSPORINS
BLOCKING PROTEIN FORMATION MACROLIDES, TETRACYCLINES AND AMINOGLYCOSIDES
INTERFERING WITH DNA FORMATION QUINOLONES
DISRUPTING CELL MEMBRANES CYCLIC LIPOPEPTIDES
DISRUPTING DNA STRUCTURE METRONIDAZOLE
UTI'S, MIDDLE EAR INFECTION, ULCERTIVE COLITIS, LOWER RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AND PROPHYLAXIS IN PNEUMONIA IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS. THE CHOICE OF DRUG WOULD BE SULFONAMIDES
ARE THE SULFA DRUGS TODAY BETTER THAN THE PAST YES LESS SIDE EFFECTS
COMMON SIDE EFFECT FOR SULFA IS RASH
OTHER SIDE EFFECTS FOR SULFA DRUGS N/V DRUG FEVER, JAUNDICE BLOOD COMPLICATIONS, KIDNEY DAMAGE, AND STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME
IF A RASH OCCURS WHILE TAKING SULFA DRUG WHAT SHOULD PATIENT DO STOP TAKING IMMEDIATELY
WARNING LABLES FOR SULFA DRUGS AVOID SUN EXPOSURE, TAKE WITH FLUIDS
WHAT CAN HAPPEN IF PATIENT DOES NOT INTAKE ADEQUATE AMT OF FLUIDS SULFONAMIDES CAN CRYSTALLIZE IN THE URINE AND DEPOSIT IN THE KIDNEYS (DRINK AT LEASE 6-8 GLASSES A DAY)
PENICILLIN IS MOST ACTIVE AGAINST WHAT GROWING AND REPRODUCING BACTERIA, GENERALLY G+ AEROBES AND ANAEROBES.
PENICILLIN MOST USED OFTEN TO TREAT STREP THROAT, REPIRATORY INFECTIONS, STD'S(SYPHILIS, GONORRHEA), ENDOCARDITIS CAUSED BY STREPTOCOCCI, OTITIS MEDIA, PNEUMONIA, MENINGITIS, ABSCESSES, TOOTH AND GUM INFECTIONS
1997 A.D.A. RELEASED NEW PROCEDURES FOR PROPHYLACTIC THERAPY 2g DOSE AMOXICILLIN BE ADMINISTERED BEFORE DENTAL PROCEDURE. IF ALLERIGIC 600mg CLINDAMCIN OR 500mg AZITHROMYCIN
MOST COMMON SIDE EFFECT IN THE PENICILLIN GROUP DIARRHEA
PENICILLINS ALLERGY MAY VERY FROM ITCHY, VERY RED MILD RASH TO WHEEZING AND ANAPHYLAXIS
WARNING LABLES TAKE ON EMPTY STOMACH
OTHER PRECAUTIONARIES FOR PENICILLIN NO FRUIT JUICES OR COLAS, ACIDS COULD DEACTIVE THE DRUG
PENICILLIN ALLERGY EFFECTS 7-10% OF POPULATION
PENICILLIN G INJECTABLE ONLY
PENICILLIN V ORAL FORM DRUG OF CHOICE FOR STREP THROAT
AMPICILLIN ORAL AND INJECTABLE TAKE QID
AMOXICILLIN ORAL TID USED MORE FRENQUENTLY
RESISTANT PENICILLINS DICLOXACILLIN, NAGCILLIN, OXACILLIN
EXTENTED-SPECTRUM PENICILLINS CARBENICILLIN, PIPERACILLIN, TICARCILLIN
PENICILLIN COMBINATIONS (MOSTLY USED IN PENICILLIN RESISTANT MICROBES) AMOXICILLIN/CLAVULANATE, AMPICILLIN/SUBBACTAM, PIPERACILLIN/TAZOBACTAM LAST TWO USED IN HOSP AND NURSING HOMES
WARNING FOR PHARM TECH IF PATIENT WITH PENICILLIN ALLERGY WARNING IS PRESCRIBED CEPHALOSPORIN ALERT PHARMACIST, EVEN IF PRESCRIBER WANTS THE DRUG DISPENSED, IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THIS COMMUNICATION BE DOCUMENTED IN CASE THE PERSON FALLS INTO THE 1% WHO DOES HAVE A CROSS REACTION
CEPHALOSPORIN MOST COMMONLY USED TO TREAT ORAL, RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS, PROPHYLAXIS FOR SURGERIES, UPPER RTI'S AND SINUS INFECTIONS, UTIs MENINGITIS
CEFHALOSPORINS 1ST GENERATION DRUGS CEPHALEXIN, CEFAZOLIN(INJECTION)
CEFHALOSPORINS 2ND GENERATION DRUGS CEFACLOR, CEFOTETAN(INJECTION), CEFUROXIME
CEFHALOSPORINS 3RD GENERATION DRUGS CEFOTAXIME(INJECTION), CEFTAZIDIME(INJECTION), CEFTRIAXONE(INJECTION)LAST ONE IS ADMINISTERED WITH LIDOCAINE. IT IS USED IN EMERGENCY RM FOR STDs
CEFHALOSPORINS 3RD GENERATION DRUGS OMNICEF(BRAND NAME) CEFDINIR - ORAL SUSPENSION WITH HIGH SUGAR CONTENT (NO GOOD FOR DIABETICS)NO REFRIDGEATION NEEDED
CEFHALOSPORINS 3RD GENERATION DRUGS SUPRAX(B-NAME) CEFIXIME - ORAL SUSPENSION NO FRIDGE, ONCE DAILY DOSING
CEFHALOSPORINS 4TH GENERATION DRUGS CEFEPIME - INJECTION
RELATED DRUGS to CEFHALOSPORINS-NEWER BETA-LACTAM DRUGS (USED IN HOSPITAL) TAKE ON EMPTY STOMACHE IMIPENEM-CILASTATIN - INJECTION MAY CAUSE SEIZURES, MEROPENEM-ALTERNATIVE TO imipenem-cilastatin, AZTREONAM-INJECTION, LORACARBEF-ORAL SUSPENSION STABLE AT ROOM TEMP TAKE BEFORE MEALS, ERTAPENEM-IV
WARNING LABEL FOR CEFHALOSPORINS REFRIDGERATE
TETRACYCLINES WARNINGS DO NOT TAKE EXPIRED MEDICATION AS IT MAY CAUSE A FATAL RENAL SYNDROME, DO NOT TAKE WITH ANTACIDS, AVOID SUN EXPOSURE, NO DAIRY
TETRACYCLINES PRIMARY SIDE EFFECT GASTRONINTESTINAL UPSET, N/V
TETRACYCLINES WARNING PREGNANT WOMEN OR CHILDREN UNDER 9 SHOULD NOT TAKE TO PREVENT DISCOLORED TEETH OR EFFECTS ON BONE GROWTH
TETACYCYLINES COMMONLY USED TO TREAT ACNE, ANTHRAX, LIME DISEASE, ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER, CHLAMDIA INFECTIONS
TETRACYCLINES DRUGS DOXYCYCLINE, MINOCYCLINE(CAN BE USED IN MENINGITIS)-DON'T WORRY ABOUT FOOD, TETRACYCLINE, DEMECLOCYCLINE
RELATED DRUG TO TETRACYCLINE TIGECYCLINE (NEW CLASS OF DRUGS CALL GYLCYCLINE) USED TO TREAT SKIN AND INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTIONS--INSURANCE WILL ASK IF SKIN INFECTION SEVERE
MACROLIDES OVER PENICILLINS USED WHEN PATIENTS ARE ALLERGIC TO PENICILLINS
MACROLIDES GENERICS AZITHROMYCIN(Z-PAK) ONCE DAILY DOSING-LOADING DOSE 2TABS(500MG)THEN ONE TAB(250MG) FOR 4 DAYS
MACROLIDES WARNINGS TAKE WITH FOOD(WILL MAKE YOU SICK)
MACROLIDES GENERICS CLARITHROMYCIN, DIRITHROMYCIN (ONCE DAILY),ERTHROMYCIN, ERTHROMYCIN ETHLSUCCINATE
MACROLIDES USED TO TREAT CHLAMDIA, STREPTOCOCCUS, H INFLUENZAE, PULMONARY INFECTIONS, LEGIONAIRES DISEASE
QUINOLONES TREAT BONE AND JOINT INFECTIONS, INFECTIOUS DIARRHEA, OPHTHALMIC INFECTIONS(TOPICALLY, SOME STDs UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS, UTIs
MACROLIDES AND QUINOLONES STD TREATMENT THAT ALL SEXUAL PARTNERS BE TREATED AT THE SAME TIME AND AVOID SEXUAL CONTACT FOR 3-4 DAYS
QUINOLONES OR FLUORQUINOLONES ARE STRONGEST FAMILY OF ANTIBIOTICS
QUINOLONES WARNING LABELS AVOID SUN EXPOSURE, DO NOT TAKE WITH ANTACIDS, TAKE WITH FLUIDS, MAY CAUSE THEOPHYLLINE TOXICITY,NOT RECOMMENDED FOR CHILDREN OR PREGNANT WOMEN
QUINOLONES GENERICS CIPROFLOXACIN(1ST OUT)PO, CILOXAN-OPHTHALMIC, CIPRODEX-OTIC W/DEXAMETHASONE, LEVOFLOXACIN-PO(MEDICARE WON'T COVER THIS DRUG),OFLOXACIN-OPHTHALMIC, FLOXIN-OTIC SINGLES
QUINOLONES GENERICS MOXIFLOXACIN-OPHTHALMIC, GATIFLOXACIN-OPHTHALMIC, NORFLOXACIN
QUINOLONES SIDE EFFECTS GASTRO, N/V, JOINT SWELLING, DIZZINESS, UNPLEASANT TASTE
STREPTOGRAMINS (WHAT ARE) NEW CLASS OF ANTIBIOTICS, ALTERNATIVE TO VANCOMYCIN
STREPTOGRAMINS GRANTED ACCELERATED APPROVAL FROM FDA BECAUSE OF THEIR ABILITY TO TREAT LIFE THREATING CONDITION.
STREPTOGRAMINS SIDE EFFECTS GASTRO, N/V, JOINT SWELLING, DIZZINESS
STREPTOGRAMINS GENERICS QUINUPRISTIN/DALFOPRISTIN-IV LINES MUST BE FLUSHED W/D5W,CYTOCHROME P450 INHIBITOR(DRUG INACTIVE IN THE LIVER)refridge also alterntive to vancomycin
STEPTPGRAMINS WARNING LABEL REFRIDGRATE
AMINOGLYCOSIDES MOST COMMONLY USED FOR SEPSIS, LIFE THREATENING INFECTIONS
AMINOGLYCOSIDE MAJOR SIDE EFFECTS NEPHROTOXICITY(KIDNEY), OTOTOXICITY(ORGANS OF HEARING), NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKAGE CAN BE A PROBLEM, SO TOXIC
AMINOGLYCOSIDES EVIDENCE ON DOSES DOES ONCE OF DAY(INSTEAD OF 2OR3)REDUCES THE CHANCE OF TOXICITY, CHECK TROUGH LEVELS BEFORE NEXT DOSE MAKE SURE ELIMINATING QUICKLY ENOUGH
AMINOGLYCOSIDES DRUGS TOBRAMYCIN-INJECTION, STREPTOMYCIN-IV, GENTAMICIN, NEOMYCIN-TOPICAL, ORAL LIQUID, AMIKACIN-IV
CYCLIC LIPOPEPTIDES COMMON USE COMPLICATED SKIN INFECTIONS, LIFE THREATENING W/MRSA OR SUPERBUG AND DIALAYSIS PATIENTS
CYCLIC LIPOPEPTIDES SIDE EFFECTS HYPOTENSION, NAUSEA, DIARRHEA, PHLEBITIS AND RASH
CYCLIC LIPOPEPTIDES WARNINGS DO NOT TAKE WITH STATINS, FLUSH IV LINES
CYCLIC LIPOPEPTIDES DRUGS DAPTOMYCIN
CYCLIC LIPOPEPTIDES IV MIXING CAN TAKE UP TO 30 MIN FOR DRUG TO DISSOLVE BEFORE IN CAN BE MIXED AS AN IV
VANCOMYCIN USED MRSA,VRSA, CE DIFF
VANCOMYCIN OVERSUED BACTERIAL RESISTANCE IS INCREATING, ALSO OTOTOXIC AND NEPHROTIC
RULES FOR INFUSING VANCOMYCIN INFUSE WITH AT LEASE 250ml AND NO MORE THAN 1g PER HOUR, BETTER TO MIX WITH MORE FLUID, VERY SLOWLY(TO FAST REDMAN SYNDROME)
CLINDAMYCIN COMMONLY USED ALTERNATIVE TO PENICILLIN IN DENTAL PROPHYLAXIS, TOPICALLY FOR ACNE
CLINDAMYCIN WARNING IF PATIENT DEVELOPS DIARRHEA, DISCONTINUE MAY CAUSE CE DIFF
METRONIDAZOLE(FLAGYL) PRIMARILY USED TO TREAT H PYLORI, (THE BACTERIA IMPLACATED IN PEPTIC ULCERS AND C DIFF
METRONIDAZOLE WARNING DO NOT TAKE WITH ALCOHOL, MAY CAUSE METALLIC TASTE, MAY CAUSE DIAHHREA, NAUSA TAKE WITH FOOD IF NECESSARY
METRONIDAZOLE AND ALCOHOL WARNING LABEL ALCOHOL INTERACTS IN THE SAME WAY AS ANTABUSE, PATIENT REACTION N/V, BLOOD VESSELS DILATE CAUSING A FLUSHED REACTION AND HEADACHE(HA)
METROGEL (VAGINAL AND TOPICAL GELS) USED STDs, MUST TREAT SEXUAL PARTNERS OR CYCLE CONTINUES, ALSO USED FOR ROSACEA
PENTAMIDINE (MISCELLANEOUS ANTIBIOTIC) USED FOR P. CARINII INFECTION SEEN IN HIV PATIENTS-IM ONCE DAILY OR INHALATION ONCE EVERY 4 WEEKS
PENTAMIDINE (MISC ANTIBIOTIC) WARNING MAY DEVELOP SUDDEN HYPOTENSION, HAVE EMERGENCY DRUG ON HAND(EPINEPHRINE)ALSO MAY CAUSE WHEEZING OR COUGHING WHEN INHALED(BREATHING TREATMENT)
LINEZOLID (MISC ANTIBIOTIC) NEW CLASS CALLED OXAZOLIDINONES USED TO TREAT MRSA, VRE - USED IN IV LINE ALONE AND KEEP OUT OF LIGHT----VERY EXPENSIVE
DROTRECOGIN ALFA (MISC DRUGS) NOT ANTIBIOTIC - USED FOR SEPSIS - BECAUSE OF IT ANTICOAGULANT PROPERTIES,
Created by: jddmmin7
 

 



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