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Chapter 6

Understanding Sudents with Communication Disorders

speech disorder difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality or fluency of speech
language disorder difficulty receiving, understanding, or formulating ideas and information
receptive language disorder difficulty receiving o understanding information
expressive language disorder difficulty formulating ideas and information
cleft palate or lip condition which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip
dialect language variation that a group of individuals uses and that reflects shared regional, social, or cultural factors
speech oral expression of language
language structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating
phonology use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words called phonemes
morphology system that governs the structure of words
morpheme syllable addition bill is one morpheme but bill's is two
syntax rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences
semantics meaning of what is expressed
pragmatics use of communication in contexts
social interaction theories communication skills are learned through social interactions
articulation speaker's production of individual or sequenced sounds
substitutions child substitutes /d/ for the voiced /th/ common in young kids
omission child leaves a phoneme out of a word
additions students place a vowel between two consonants, converting tree into tahree
distortions modifications of the production of a phoneme in a word
apraxia motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech
pitch affected by the tension and size of the vocal folds, the health of the larynx, and the location of the larynx
duration length of time any speech sound requires
intensity based on the perception of the listener and is determined by the air pressure coming from the lungs through the vocal folds
resonance quality of someone's voice, determined by the way in which the tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth, and nose.
hypernasality air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity on sounds other than m , n, and ng
hyponasality air cannot pass through the nose and comes through the mouth instead
fluency rate and rhythm of speaking
specific language impairment not related to any physical or intellectual disability
phonology characteristics may be unable to discriminate differences in speech sounds or sound segments that signify differences in words
morphology characteristics difficulties using the structure of words to get or give information
syntax characteristics involving word order
semantic characteristics difficulty using words singly or together in sentences
pragmatic characteristics social use of language, problems with communication between speaker and listener
organic disorder caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person
functional disorder no identifiable organic or neurological cause
congential disorder disorder that occurs before birth
acquired disorder disorder that occurs after birth
bilingual uses two languages equally well
bidialectal uses two variations of a language
system for augmenting language (SAL) focuses on augmented input of language
Created by: sarapatrick007