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PSY 218 Test 2

Time-out Defined as the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem behavior.
Time-out from positive reinforcement. Time out is short for time0out from positive reinforcement.
Nonexclusionary time-out Remaining in the classroom after the problem behavior but having to sit across the room from where the other children played, and thus removed from the reinforcing activity.
Exclusionary time-out. Contingent on the problem behavior, Kenny was taken out of the room where he was watching TV or playing. He was taken to a room where these reinforcers were not available.
Time-in The environment where the problem behavior occurs. Must consist of positively reinforcing activities or interactions for timeout to be effective.
Contingent observation Child sits and watches the other children play appropriately. Caregiver can praise the other children for behaving appropriately while the disruptive child, who is in time-out, watches.
Response cost The removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer contingent on the occurence of a problem behavior.
Functional interventions Extinction, differential reinforcement, and antecedent control. They are functional because they decrease problem behaviors and increase desireable behaviors by modifying the antecedent and consequent variables that control the behaviors.
Antecedent control procedurs Also called antecedent manipulations. Antecedent simuli are manipulated to evoke desirable behaviors, so that they can be differentially reiinforced, and to decrease undesirable behaviors that interfere with desirable behaviors.
Extinction Removing the reinforcer for the problem behavior. When the behavior no longer results in a reinforcing outcome, there is no reason for the behavior to continue to occur.
Differential reinforcement The person can achieve the same outcome without engaging in the problem behavior. If the person is producing the same functional consequence through an alternative behavior, absense of problem behavior, or lower rate of problem behavior, there
Escape extinction Extinction for behaviors maintained by negative reinforcement. In negative reinforcement, a behavior results in escape from an aversive stimulus. Escape extinction involves no longer allowing escape following the problem behavior.
Scatter Plot A type of functional assesment procedure in which you record each half hour whether the behavior occurred in the preceding half hour. It is used to establish the temporal pattern in the behavior.
Hypothesis-testing functional analysis A type of functional analysis in which the goal is not to evaluate all possible functions, but to confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis.
Functional analysis A functioanl assesment method in which environmental events (antecedents and consequences of the behavior) are manipulated to demonstrate a functioanl relationship between the environmental events and the behavior.
Functional assessment The process of generating information on the events preceding and following the behavior in an attempt to determine which antecedents and consequences are reliably associated with the occurrence of the behavior.
Functional assessment (continued) Includes indirect assessment through interviews and questionnaires, direct ovservation of the antecedents and consequences in the natural environment, and functional analysis methods involving the manupulation of environmental events.
Rehearsal Practice of the behavior in a role-play situation after instructiosn and modeling. Rehearsal is followed by feedback on the performance.
Modeling (modeling prompt) A type of prompt in which the trainer demonstrates the target behavior for the learner. Modeling works best in conjunction with instructions, in situations in which the learner has an oppertunity to rehearse the behavior immediately in a role-play.
In situ assesment Assesment of skills in the natural environment without the person's knowledge that assessment is taking place.
In situ training Training that occurs in the natural environment after an in situ assesment in which the child fails to use the skills.
Behavioral skills training procedure (BST) A procedure consisting of instructions, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and feedback that is used to teach new behaviors.
Feedback In behavioral skills training procedures, feedback involves delivering praise for successful performance in a behavioral rehearsal and instruction on ways to improve the performance in the future.
Video modeling A type of chaining procedure in which the learner watches a video of part or all of the chain of behaviors as a prompt to engage in the chain of behaviors.
Written task analysis A written list of each discriminative stimulus and response in a chain of behaviors. Sometimes a written task analysis (also known as textual prompts) is given to the learner to guide the learner's behavior through the chain of behaviors.
Task analysis Identification of the discriminative stimulus and response for each component of a behavior chain.
Behavioral chain A complex behavior consisting of two or more component behaviors that occur together in a sequence. For each component behavior, there is a discriminative stimulus and response. A behavioral chain is sometimes called a stimulus-response chain.
Stimulus-response chain A behavioral chain.
Picture prompts A type of prompt in which the client is presented with a picture of a person engaging in the target behavior. The picture acts as a prompt for the client to engage in the correct behavior at the correct time. Often, a sequence of pictures is presented.
Self-instructions Selt-statements that make it more liekely that a target behavior will occur in a specific situation.
Graduated guidance A prompting strategy used with the total task presentation procedure in which you provide full hand-over-hand assistance as a prompt for the learner to complete the behavior. Gradually fade your assistance but continue shadowing just incase.
Forward chaining A procedure for teaching a chain of behaviors. The first component of the chain is taught through prompting and fading, and once the first component has been learned, the second component is added, and so on.
Chaining procedures Prodecures used to teach a person to engage in a chain of behaviors. Includes backward chaining, forward chaining, total task presentation, written task analysis, picture prompts, and self instructions.
Backward chaining A type of chaining prodedure in which the last component of the chain is taught first, mastered, then the second to last component is taught, and so on.
Within-stimulus prompt A type of stimulus prompt in which some aspect of the discriminative stimulus or S is changed to help a person make a correct discrimination.
Verbal prompt A type of prompt in which the verbal behavior of another person results in the correct behavior of the trainee in the presence of the discruminative stimulus.
Transfer of stimulus control A process in which prompts are removed once the target behavior is occurring in the presence of the discriminative stimulus (SD). Prompt fading and prompt delay are prodecures used to transer stimulus control from the prompt to the SD.
Stimulus fading The gradual elimination of a stimulus prompt as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the discriminative stimulus.
Stimulus prompt Some change in an antecedent stimulus or the addition or removal of an antecedent stimulus, with the goal of making a correct response more likely.
Response prompt A type of prompt in which the trainer engages in a behavior to enduce the client to engage in the target behavior in the presence of the discriminative stimulus. Includes verbal prompts, gestural prompts, modeling prompts, and physical prompts.
Prompt fading The gradual removal of prompts as the behavior continues to occur in the presence of the discriminative stimulus.
Prompt delay The trainer presents the discriminative stimulus (SD) and then, after a specific interval of time, presents the prompt. Idealy, the response will eventually occur before the prompt.
Prompt Used to increase the likelihood that a person will engage in the correct behavior at the correct time. A prompt may involve the behavior of the trainer (response prompts) or supplemental environmental stimuli (stimulus prompts).
Physical prompt A type of prompt in which the trainer physically assists the learner to engage in the correct behavior at the correct time. Most often involves hand-over-hand guidance of the behavior.
Physical guidance Another term for physical prompting.
Gestural Prompt A physical movement or gesture of another person that leads to the correct behavior in the presence of the discriminative stimulus.
Differential reinforcement A procedure in which a specific desirable behavior is followed by a reinforcer but other behaviors are not. The result is an increase in the desirable behavior and extinction of the other behaviors.
Shaping The reinforcement of successive approximations to a target behavior. Shaping is used to establish a novel topography or dimension of a behavior.
Successive approximation In the process of shaping, each successive aprproximation is a behavior that more closely resembles the target behavior. The shaping process starts with reinforcing the first approximation, a behavior currently exhibited by the person.
Successive approximation (continued) After the first approximation is strengthened through reinforcement, it is extinguished. A closer approximation then occurs and is reinforced. This process continues until the person exhibits the target behavior.
Extrastimulus prompt A type of stimulus prompt in which a stimulus is added to help a person make a correct discrimination.
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