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Psychology ch. 9.

Motivation and Emotion

is all the processes that initiate, direct, and sustain behavior Motivation
is the need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal Motive
Taking the first steps toward a goal Activation
Continuing to work toward a goal despite encountering obstacles Persistence
The energy and attention applied to achieve a goal Intensity
Desire to perform an act because it is satisfying or pleasurable in and of itself Intrinsic Motivation
Desire to perform an act to gain an external reward or avoid an undesirable consequence Extrinsic Motivation
Fixed behavior patterns characteristic of every member of a species Instincts
According to ? a biological need creates an unpleasant internal state, called a drive, and the person or organism is motivated to reduce it. Clark Hull
Natural tendency of the body to maintain a balanced internal state Homeostasis
A state of alertness and mental and physical activation Arousal
When arousal is too low, ? motivate organisms to increase stimulation Stimulus motives
States that task performance is best when arousal level is appropriate to task difficulty Higher arousal for simple tasks Moderate arousal for moderate tasks Low arousal for difficult tasks Yerkes-Dodson Law
State of discomfort when there is conflict between a belief and behavior We strive to reduce this dissonance Cognitive dissonance
Abraham Maslow proposed that human needs are hierarchical Humans are motivated by their lowest unmet need Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Perceive reality accurately Believe they have a mission to accomplish Devote their lives to some larger good Frequently have peak experiences of deep meaning, insight, and harmony with the universe Self-actualizers
Motive (such as the needs for affiliation and achievement) that is acquired through experience and interaction with others Social Motives
A series of pictures of ambiguous situations Person taking the test is asked to create a story about each picture The stories are presumed to reveal the test taker’s needs Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
the motive “to accomplish something difficult… to overcome obstacles and attain a high standard. To excel one’s self. To rival and surpass others. To increase self-regard by the successful exercise of talent” Need for achievement (n ACH)
The ? of emotion states the sequence of events in emotional responding as : Stimulus Emotion Physiological changes Commonsense view
Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: Physiological responses Subjective experience of emotion Cannon- Bard Theory of emotion
suggests that two things must happen for a person to feel an emotion There must be physiological arousal There must be a cognitive interpretation of the arousal, so the person can label it as a specific emotion The Schachter-Singer two-factor theory
first studied the relationship between emotions and facial expressions Charles Darwin
are unlearned motives that serve to satisfy biological needs, states of tension or arousal that arise from a biological need and are unlearned. Primary drives
A measure of weight relative to height Body Mass Index
Heredity is a cause of variations in BMI Genes influence ? and the number of fat cells in the body Metabolic rate
What percent of adults in the US are overweight and obese? 1/3
What percent of children in the US are obese? 10%
is an eating disorder characterized by overwhelming, irrational fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, compulsive dieting to the point of starvation, and excessive weight loss Anorexia nervosa
is an eating disorder characterized by repeated and uncontrolled episodes of binge eating Bulimia nervosa
Created by: Taylor Boyleston