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Optics Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
Devices that work through controlled manipulation of refraction lenses
Which optical phenomena do lenses utilitze? refraction
a lens that blocks all visible light but lets IR light (heat) through black lens
a curve that moves out convex
a curve that moves in concave
a flat side of a lens plano
distance between focal point and middle of lens focal length
a lens that makes all the rays converge on a singal point convergent lens
6 types of lenses biconvex, biconcave, convex-concave, plano-convex, plano-concave, meniscus
The point at which rays or waves meet after reflection or refraction, or the point from which diverging rays or waves appear to proceed. focal point
what type of lens causes all light rays to be directed through the focal point convergent or biconvex
what type of lens causes all light rays to be diverged and they all appear to originate from a common point and to have negative focal point? divergent or biconcave
A single lens system that creates a real, inverted, and diminished image camera
A single lens system that creates a real, inverted, and same size image copier
A single lens system that creates a real, inverted, and magnified image projector
A single lens system that creates an image at infinity spotlight
A single lens system that creates a virtual, erect, and magnified image magnifying glass
A single lens system that creates a virtual, erect, and diminished image spectacle lens
Name 6 single lens systems camera, copier, projector, spotlight, magnifying glass, spectacle lens
what is the most troublesome of all LENS defects chromatic aberration
Solution to chromatic aberration in lenses achromatic doublet/positive
this lens defect causes the separation of color when light is refracted through glass chromatic aberration
a lens defect that does not direct all rays precisely through one focal point spherical aberration
solution to spherical aberrations aspheric lens
person who ground the first high quality aspheric lens in 1667 francis smethwick
perfect lens system achromatic doublet of aspheric lenses
on-axis lens errors chromatic and spherical aberrations
off-axis aberrations field curvature, comatic, and astigmatism aberrations
an aberration that occurs when a simple lens focuses image points from an extended flattened object onto a spherical surface resembling a curved bowl field curvaure
an aberration that is mainly encountered with off-axis light fluxes comatic
when these aberrations occur, the image of a point is focused at sequentially differing heights producing a series of asymmetrical spot shapes of increasing size that result in a comet-like shape comatic
an aberration that is manifested by the off-axis image of a specimen point appearing as a line or ellipse instead of a point astigmatism
a lens that only magnifies in one direction cylindrical lens (plano-convex)
a lens that can convert a point source into a line cylindrical lens
a lens that is designed for use with lasers and turn a beam of light light into a sheet of light; the beam is shone axially into the lens rather than radially (cylindrical) powell-glass or line generator
a lens that replaces the curved surface of a plano-convex lens with a series of concentric grooves or annular prisms fresnel lens
advantages of fresnel lens light weight, thin, and very little light is lost through absorption; magnifies a lot
disadvantage of fresnel lens distortion
lenses should be mounted with grooves facing light source fresnel lens
created by cutting precision parallel grooves into the surface of a glass block using diamond diffraction grating
the fanning out and band separation of light behind a slit diffraction
what is used in conjunction with spectrometers to analyze the wavelengths present in the spectra of a light source diffraction grating
two uses for diffraction grating spectrometer and displacement sensor (digital caliper)
the optical phenomenom that mirrors rely on reflection
the optical phenomenom that gratings rely on diffraction
all mirrors create what kind of image reversed and virtual
a mirror that acts as a magnifier making the virtual image appear enlarged concave
this mirror is widely used as a vanity mirror concave
a mirror that will diminish the image and provides a wider field of view convex
what is a use for a convex mirror passenger side car door mirror
a special case of concave mirror that can invert the image bowl mirror
mirrors are not subject to what type of aberration chromatic
spherical concave mirrors suffer from what type of aberration spherical
what are 2 advantages of spherical concave mirrors? easier and cheaper to make
what is the MIRROR equivalent to an aspherical lens? parabolic mirror
a type of mirror that is ideal for focusing light parallel to the prinicipal axis onto a single point parabolic
advantage of a spherical mirror a parallel bam at an angle to the principle axis is still brought to a focus at an off-axis location
What type of mirror is often used as a solar concentrator? spherical mirror
name 4 specialty mirrors cylindrical, right angle, cone, rod
what is the shiniest element known mercury
what is largest mercury mirror called large zenith telescope
a mirror that focuses light in only one axis cylindrical
a mirror that is precision cut glass prisms with a silvered surface on the angled face; designed to simplify optical arrangements that require angled reflective surfaces right angle
a mirror used for 360 degree illumination cone
a mirror used to bend image paths and redirect laser light rod
glass blocks that have been precision cut to create facets prisms
flat surface planes on prisms facets
a prism used to create 90 degree bend in the light path right angle
a prism used to image dispersion or can be used to turn an image through a specific angle littrow
a prism used in imaging applications to displace a laser beam without changing its direction or inverting the image rhomboid
a prism used to rate an image by 180 degrees. the image exits in the opposite direction offset from its entrance point porro
a prism that only displaces the image in the horizontal plane porro-abbe
a prism that reverts and inverts the image as as bend the line of sight through a 90 degree angle amici roof
a prism that is used to invert and revert an image while deviating it through an angle of 45 degree schmidt
a prism used to rotate an image by 180 degrees and is commonly used in binoculars schmidt-pechan
a 5 sided reflecting prism used to deviate a beam of light by 90 degrees pentaprism
a prism commonly used in cameras to revert image from left-to-right roof pentaprism
a type of reflecting prism used to invert an image (rotate it by 180 degrees); flip the image both horizontally and vertically while keeping the exit beam in line with the incident beam; commonly used in binoculars abbe-koenig
a prism that inverts an image; when they are rotated along their longitudinal axis, the transmitted image rotates at twice the rate of the prism; useful in beam rotators dove
a prism that is sed to bend a laser beam to a set angle without moving the laser itself wedge
another name for a trihedral prism corner cube retro-reflector
a prism that is ideal for precision alignment trihedral
a prism that is used in surveying trihedral
a prism that splits light into 2 beams of differeng wavelengths (color) dichroic
a combination of 2 dichroic prism that is used to split white light to red, green, and blue; can be done in reverse and is critical to projectors trichroic
optical elements that are used to separate a single beam into 2 separate rays through transmission and reflection beam splitter
three types of beam splitters plate, dichroic, pellicle
a type of beam splitter that is an optical window with a semitransparent mirrored coating to break a beam into 2 or more separate beams plate
a type of beam splitter that is 2 right angle prisms cemented together dichroic
a type of beam splitter that is a very thin nitrocellulose membranes that are attached to a metal frame pellicle
2 disadvantages of optic fiber bend radius and making connections (splicing)
relies on total internal reflection to transmit light through long lengths of transparent cable optic fiber
in an optic fiber the refractive index is higher in what? core
in an optic fiber the refractive index is lower in what? coating
the strength member of optic fiber kevlar
three uses for optic fiber inspection in hard to reach places (medicine), providing illumination and communication
type of optic fiber that is used to carry information a long distance, with only a little bit of information, and has a small core single-mode
type of optic fiber that is used to carry information a short distance, with a lot of information, and has a large core multi-mode
what is used to make nano-scale optic fiber spider silk from Madagascar
transmission of light over various distances through air in a controlled fashion projection
devices intended to take the light emitted from a strong point source and redirect that light into a parallel beam spotlights
a parabola has the unique property that if a concentrated light source is placed the focal point, then all reflected rays would move in parallel away from the surface parabolic reflector
a spot light that has a second small reflector place just ahead of the bulb (or the bulb is silvered itself) quality or higher end
what kind of light will you get by moving light source slightly off the focus of the mirror of a spot light flood light
what type of refelctor is used when light from a bulb needs to be concentrated onto (and through) a single point ellipsoidal
what is one use for an ellipsoidal reflector movie film projector; headlights on high end cars
a light projection system that uses a bulb located at one focus of an ellipsoidal reflector with a condenser lens at the front of the lamp projector lamp for high end cars
older cars use what kind of headlamp sealed beam
a type of headlamp that is a smooth parabolic reflector behind the bulb projects the ight forward through a lens system sealed beam
a lens system that breaks light into patches that illuminate precise areas of the raod fresnel patches
newer headlamps use a clear lens and faceted non-parabolic mirror geometries called what optic reflector
a land-based light projection system intended to warn nautical traffic about the presence of rocks or jagged shoreline lighthouses
used for old kerosene lamp light houses because of light weight and modular construction fresnel lens of 6 orders (1st order-largest)
24 images per second; rotating shutter; mirror, lamp, condenser lens movie film projector
this light projection system is the same as the movie film projector with an added mirror to turn the image 90 degrees up overhead projector
the condenser lens for overhead projector is what kind of lens fresnel
what light projection system technology do computer projectors use digital light processing (DLP)
what is DLP display technology developed by Texas Instruments; invented by Dr. Hornbeck who also developed the DMD
what is a DMD optical semiconductor capable of steering photons with unparalleled accuracy; contains a rectangular array of up to 1.3 million hinge mounted mirrors (mirrors can tilt +_ 10 degrees); 90% fill factor!
what light optical phenomenon does DLP use reflective
a projection system that uses a DMD chip with a reflective surface made up thousands of tiny mirrors which wobble back and forth, directing light either into the lens path to turn the pixel on or away from the lens path to turn the pixel off. DLP
mechanical movements are created and controlled by electrostatic charges Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS)
this light projection system contains 3 separate panels (for each primary color); as light passes through panels, individual pixels can be opened to allow light to pass or closed to block the light; 70% fill factor LCD
What optical phenomenon does LCD use? transmissive
what optical phenomenon does LCoS use reflective
the light projection system uses liquid crystals instead of individual mirrors; crystals are applied to a reflective mirror substrate; as crystals open and close, the light is reflected or blocked from the mirror below best quality heaviest most expensive LCoS
what does LCoS stand for? liquid crystal on silicon
projects an image onto a transparent window that is normally looked through such as a windshield or helmet visor; avoids the need for an operator to divert head and eyes away from a scene in order to look a separate display panel Heads up display
light projection commonly used in military aircraft HUD
provides a means of enhancing vision while driving at night; shows driver what is on the road ahead, beyond the range of the headlights; uses IR (heat) sensitive camera mounted in the front radiator grill Cadillac Deville head up night vision
what is a humans primary sense vision
how many lenses does an eye have 1 therefore the image is upside down
eyes are not good optical instruments; what makes them work so well our brains
produces a real, inverted, and diminished image on the screen formed by the curved back of the eyeball convex lens of the eye
the surface covered with millions of nerve endings (light sensitive cells) that transmit messages to the brain about the shape and color or the image retina
what controls the power of the eye lens by altering focus according to distance of the object it's looking at ciliary muscles
this regulates the amount of light allowed into the eye by opening and closing; protects the retina from over illumination iris
the opening inside the iris that doesn't actually exist pupil
this is very sensitive to fine detail; a very small area at the center of the retina that is rich in cones yellow spot
name two types of light sensitive nerves cones and rods
nerve endings that record image details; photopic vision or active at higher levels of light; 3 types of this and most are dedicated to red (64%) cones
nerve ending that predominates the retina; these nerves are sensitive to lower level of illmination (scotopic vision); these nerve endings are more sensitive to movement, not color or details rods
the point where the optic nerve passes through the retina blind spot
what color are displays on ships and why low intensity red because cones will pick up color and rods won't see red at all therefore not interrupting the night vision
vision that lets us easily tell with good accuracy how far away an object is and lets us see in 3 dimensions binocular vision
the transparent layer of tissue that protects the iris and the pupil cornea
keeps the eyes clean like windshield wipers on a car eyelids
near sighted; eye lens is not matched to depth of the eyeball; the lens is unable to relax sufficiently to focus on parallel light myopia
far sighted; unable to focus on objects close at hand; distant objets are seen more clearly than closer one hypermetropia
elasticity to lens goes away and the eye can't change the focal length; both myopia and hypermetropia presbyopia
the range of adjustment of the eye between the furthest and nearest distances of clear vision accomodation
this vision problem is caused by the eye lens having different curvatures along different axes through the lens astigmatism
who made the first recorded observations about the use of lenses for vision correction roger bacon
when marco polo was in china he noted what lense held in place by weighted cords hung from the ears
nicholas of cusa invented what eyeglasses to correct near sightedness using concave lenses
who invented bifocals benjamin franklin
who invented the first glasses to correct an astigmatism sir george biddle airy
corrective lens of variable strength that can be used in place of bifocals or trifocals progressives
when were contact lenses invented 1887
what type of spectacle lens will correct myopia concave lens that makes light diverge as though from a less distant object
what type of spetacle lens will correct hypermetropia convex lens lens that converges light from the near object and makes it appear to come from a more distant position
who was the first to suggest contact lenses leonardo daVinci
what were the first contact lenses made out of glass
when did modern contact lenses appear 1940s
what type of lenses are gas permeable and allows the eye to breathe and prevents clinical problems attributed to lack of oxygen silicon hydrogels
why are hydrogels added to contact lenses because silicon naturally sheds water which makes the lens dry out; hydrogels counter this effect and makes the lenses hydrophillic
what are some advantages to intacs as opposed to lasik less invasive; reversible; safer; adds strength to cornea instead of taking it away
what permanently changed the shape of the cornea by vaporizing tiny bits of tissue from the cornea to reshape it? lasik
name a vision correction that works by temporarily reshaping your cornea with rigid contacts while you sleep corneal refractive therapy
what are the 3 components to retinal implants retinal stimulator; visual interface; pocket processor
what is the purpose of retinal implants to provide sight to the blind
name two technologies that could possibly provide sight to the blind retinal implants and silicon eye implant
what is the retinal stimulator of retinal implants an implant which is surgically placed into eye of patient; replaces retina and generates signals that interface with nerves
what is the visual interface of retinal implants A pair of glasses that contains integrated mini-camera and transmitter component for wireless signal and energy transmission
what is the pocket processor of retinal implants worn at patients waist; replaces the information processing function of the formally healthy retina
an implant that light goes through your own eyes and light falls on back of chip; fluid on chip expands and puts pressure on optic nerve which sends a signal silicon eye implant
how are dogs vision superior to ours because they have all rods they can see better in the dark and can sense movement better
how are humans vision superior to dogs because the don't have any cones their optical acruity is worse (more fuzzy) and they are red and green color blind
what animal can see in IR (heat) snakes
what type of eyes do insects have a compound eye
tiny hexagonal units that make up the eyes of insects ommatidia
advantages of compound eye allows more light to be gathered; 180 degrees vision; can easily detect movement
a faceted view of the world; a bunch of tiny images compound eye
insects have another organ sensitive to light but cannot generate any image information but can see an approaching shadow ocellus
what is the bsic foundation for sustaining life on earth photosynthesis
converts CO2 and energy from sun and water and converts is to what sugar and oxygen
what is the primary molecule involved in photosynthesis chlorophyll
what color does chlorophyll not absorb green
MIT made a solar cell powered by what spinach proteins
what is photo film coated with that when exposed to light leads to a reaction silver bromide
a device in which when light hits it, it changes resistance photoresistor
disadvantages of a photoresistor not proportional to intensity of light, subject to light history, no repeatability
what are photoresistors good for use in dawn to dusk sensors in outside lighting
more light provides greater leakage; “leaky valve” regulate flow photodiode
low forward resistance in one direction and high reverse resistance in other direction (one way valve for electricity); put into circuit backwards; incident light causes the diode to leak current in the reverse dirction photodiode
a switch phototransistors
another name for solar cells photovoltaic panels
the one device that changes photon energy into electricity solar cells
why is it generally constructed of silicon electrically inert and and insulator
in solar cells, what is the silicon doped with to make it conductive phosphorous (n type) and Boron (p type)
this is formed when free electrons and holes are attracted to each other charge barrier
the energy required to knock an electron loose band gap energy
3 types of solar cells single crystal cells, polycrystalline cells, or amorphous cells (silicon)
why are silicon solar cells inferior to crystalline solar cells you need twice the surface are to produce the same amount of electricity; the output deteriorates more quickly over time
2 advantages of silicon solar cells cheaper and work better at higher temperatures
a single solar cell always produces what voltage 0.5 volts
how would you increase the voltage in a solar panel connect individual cells in series
the larger the solar cell, the ___________ the curren greater
how would you increase the current in a solar panel connect the solar cells in paralles
what does CCD stand for charge coupled device
what replaces film in digital cameras? CCD chip
where was the CCD chip invented Bell laboratories
CCD chips are monochrome devices, how do we get color pictures? a color filter array is placed over each pixel which filters out all but the chosen color for that pixel
what does CFA stand for? color filter array
what is the most common pattern for color filter arrays in CCD chips? bayer pattern
how many megapixels did the astrometry department of the navy fit on a 4x4 CCD chip 111
how could you increase pixel density on a CCD chip use octagonal pixels rather than square
give two names for the first still film camera without a lens or film camera obscura and pin-hole camera
what is a camera obscura/pin-hole camera? light rays from an external object enter a darkened chamber through a tiny hole in one wall, converge and cross, and project an image of the outside scene onn the opposite wall
the word camera is derived from a Latin word meaning chamber
Kodak's Brownie camera was first available when at what price? 1900 for $1
what brought photography to the mass market kodaks brownie
what does SLR stand for? single lens reflex
advantages of SLR camera? interchangeable lenses, good resolution, and WYSIWIG
what is WYSIWYG what you see is what you get
who invented the polaroid camera and when edwin land in 1947
what is a polaroid camera and optical system that created a finished black and white photograph in one minute
disadvantage of polaroid camera no negative
advantage of polaroid camera instant gratification
disadvantages of SLR no instant gratification, must take more than necessary pictures to develop roll
what are some advantages of the digital still camera inexpensive, easy to carry, instant, flash storage
what are some reasons point and shoot cameras or digital cameras are still inferior to SLR? no interchangeable lenses, limited optical zoom, no viewfinder, battery life, can be slow switching between pictures, resolution
take a regular film camera and replace film with high resolution CCD chip, a viewfinder, LCD display, mirror, pentaprism, intchg lenses, etc and what do you get digital SLR camera
what are 2 disadvantes of the digital SLR expensive and big
what is dedicated to video capture the camcorder
a camcorder uses a CCD chip to capture successive images at what rate 30 frames per second
resolution of camcorder does not have to be great; only needs to show on what TV or computer monitor at 760p or 1080i
old analog camcorders stored information on what in what form on magnetic tape in analog waveform
what are 3 examples of old analog magnetic tapes for camcorders VHS, 8mm, Hi8
the first generation digital camcorder stored informationn on what DV or Digital8
modern digital video recorders now use what type of storage HDD (hard disk drive) or flash storage (SD cards)
what type of cameras are used in broadcast tv? VIDICON
what are some disadvantages of VIDICON fragile, heavy, hot, susceptible to vibration and shock
what kind of technology is a VIDICON camera vacuum tube
what was the first movie to be distributed and shown digitally star wars episode 1
what was the first movie to be shot without any film at all star wars episode 2
Method of obtaining 3-D photographic images holography
what techonology does holography utilize lasers, beam splitters, beam spreaders, photographic film, mirrors
what is the fibonacci sequence a sequence of numbers beginning with 0 and 1, where the next number is the sum of the previous 2
phi squared = ? phi + 1
1/phi = ? phi - 1
phi = ? 1.618
what kind of number is phi transcendental like pi (non repeating)
what are 3 other names for phi fingerprint of god, divine proportion, golden ratio
what does HP's wobulation technology do? takes the original image and breaks it down into two separate sub images; your eye adds the tow signals for each pixel yielding a close facsimile
what does wobulation take advantage of the facts that Ti's DLP mirrors can oscillate at every 1/120 of a second to create a series of overlapping pixels which the eye melds together; result is 2 pixels for each mirror
what are some example of techonology that utilize electrophoretic displays kindles, electronic paper, e-ink
electrophoretic displays do not need what to work? power because no light is produced; the only power needed is to change page
how do electrophoretic displays work? pixel size spheres with white and black flakes that are charged with gel inside
advantage of electronic paper or electrophoretic displays lightweight, durable, flexible, and easy to read at an angle
Created by: aromola