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PSY study III

Test III

Biological Theroy
Drive Reduction the drive is going to motivate you to - (ex)drink when thirsty
Arousal Theroy Diff= study for a final(tough test)minimize arousal, Easy Task= won't do it well cause bored and tired cause to easy.
Yer-Dodson Law Difficult task cause you not to do it, less arousal. Easy = more arousal
Intrinsic Motivation doing something and having joy doing it
Extrinsic Motivation doing something because you get something out of it.
A hierachy of Motives (Maslow) Pyrimids of needs: 5 motivations in order = Psycological needs-drink & eat, Need for saftey-roof over head & good neighborhood, Belongings & Loved-family & sugnificant other, Esteem Needs-self esteem & proceived by others(don't care what people think),
A hierachy of Motives (Maslow) self actualization needs - arnarma. no matter what you situation is your happy.
Hunger and Thirst regulated by hypothalamus
Lateral tells you to eat
Ventromedial tells you to stop eating
paraventricular triggers food cravings
Hypo monitors blood for glucose, insulin, fats, carbs, leptin - 20 mins for signal of being full gets to brain
Psychosocial factor sight-commercials,cookie jar, smell-parking lot of a restarant, social setting-out with friends, conditioning-time of day, emotional eating-depression, celebrating-it's friday, Boredom-standing in front of pantry and stare.
Eating Disorders (A feeling you don't have control)Obesity, Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia, Impact health
Obesity over eating, not enough exercise, lots of sugar, fat, and salt(taste good)
Anorexia Nervosa not eating, not getting enough nutrients, osteoprosis, bone fractures, off periods, smaller brain
Bulimia Binging and Purging
Binging Consume large quanities of food
Purging vomiting, laxatives, extreme exercise
Impact Health Dental damage, damage to throat and stomach, Cardiac arrythmia, metabolic defficencies, serious digest disorders
Achievement a motive to work hard, a need to achieve. Moder to dif task, need to complete, clear goals, with feedback, need to know exactly what they are going to do, responsible for a progect and want to do it alone.
Sex Cycle in the moment excitment, plateau, orgasim, resolution
vasoconstriction blood from brain to genitals
sex is motivating survival. pleasure, need for intamacy
Emotion three componets of emotion=Physiological, Cognitive, behavoial
Physiological heart pounding, crying sweating, etc
Cognitive thoughts, perspective, evaluation reaction unique as a fingerprint
behavioral facial expression, body language
Plutchik=Primary vs secondary of emotions color wheel-8 basic emotions, combine emotions making more complicated,2 emotions from other cultures never heard of.
Primary emotion six basic emotions that are universal of all languages and cultures
Secondary emotions are the other emotion not in the 6 basic, bc they do not relate or are understood in other languages and cultures. Not universal to
James Lang Theory Lang in a line- How we experiemence emotion, stimutus->physicological change->emotion (EX)spider->heart race->fear
Cannon Bard Theroy Stimuli, causes physiological and change at same time
Facial Emotion feedback hypothesis, faking your expressions, act happy, silly, goofy, laugh aloud(it will emotionally change you feeling for the batter.
Schachter Two-Factor Theroy explains emotions because of situations
Non-VerbaL communication 92% communication is non verbal, tone of voice, facial expressions, body language, personal space, explict acts
Passive Aggressiveness rely on non verbal, instead of saying how you feel, you show it with emotions(non-verbal)
Pernatal Development Hang out 7 days, travel time is two weeks, women body takes care of sperm, sperm hangs out by the fallopian tube, egg pops near where sperm hangs, 28 days, when egg pops out sperm attacks, egg picks a side-may cause some bleeding
Placenta oragn developes in mother, connect fetus to mother, supply oxygen and nutrients, filters waste
Taratogenes anything toxic that can cross the plecenta and harm the deveoloping baby
Phyisical development growth is rapid in the 1st year, triple weight by first bday, grow 10in in hieght
Growth rate slows down in 2nd year
check reflex instinct relexes, motor, and feeding
Brain Development grows 3/4 of its adult size by 2nd bday, fully devolpe by age 10
reflex involontary movement, rooting, sucking, and swallowing, grasping (hands and feet), stepping, babinski, moro, etc
Voluntary Movements aquire skills in an order sequence, development Norms -walk 1yr, muturation-cephalocaudal(top, then down), Proximodistal(center then outward)
Perceptual Development- Vision sees 8-10in away-newborn, improves by 6 months, 20/20 by 2yrs, dept perception by crawling age
Cognitive Development-Piaget 4 stage model kids go through naturally
Sensory Motor org experiences into category in brain(filling), object promance(object remainperment even though not in front of them. mental represention"Schemas"(learning through repedelly listening), self recognition in mirror-starts recognise them self)
Peroperational 2-7yrs, language development, fantasy play, symbolic(dress up, talk on the phone)gestures, Egocentrism-relating things like thinking of others in their way of what they want.
Concrete operational thinking 7-11yrs, thinking more flexable, learn better hands on, understand conservation(one sandwich 2 slices (older, four slices(younger) - younger thinks she has more
Formal operational 12 plus yrs, developes abstract thingking, doing more in head
Parenting style Boca-ish - love, disipline, communications
Authoritian to controlling- your just a kid, parent cold-no effection, just no communication, Child gets- mood swings, truble communicating, distrustful
Permissive In-Different (allow)(don't care) No control over kids, neglectful, no emotion support, no communication, child get-overly dependenant, lack in social skills and self control.
Permissive Indulgent (allow)(whatever you want) very supportive, but no control, immature disrespectful, impulsivem and out of control, can grow out of that from bad experience
Authoritative disiple-not to stick not to lean, warmth and caring love, communication-talks to each other and listens to each other, vents to each other, Child gets become self-reliant and social responsibile
Social Responsililty easy to get along, fit in, genuine, respectful, trusting
Kohlberg’s 3 Stages of Moral Development Pre-conventional, Conventional, Post-conventional
Pre-conventional (birth to adolescence) Moral understanding is based on rewards/punishments. Ex: I don’t hit my sister because I will get in trouble.
Conventional (adolescence to young adulthood) Moral understanding is based on complying with social rules. Ex: I don’t hit my sister because my parents will be disappointed in me. Or, I don’t hit her because you’re not supposed to hurt anyone.
Post-conventional Moral understanding is based on personal standards of right and wrong, universal ethics, and abstract principles that apply to everyone. Ex: I don’t hit my sister because it’s wrong to hit people.
Growth spurt 10 ½ years for girls 12 ½ years for boys
Puberty Puberty signals sexual maturation Hormone shifts trigger rapid changes:Females breasts grow, pubic hair,Reproductive develope,Menarche–first period,Males voice deepens, pubic and facial hair,Reproductive develop,Spermarche–first ejaculation
Imaginary audience Constantly feeling “onstage” Constantly feeling judged “I have a zit on my nose! I can’t go to school!
Personal fable Unrealistic sense of own uniqueness “Nobody understands what I’m going through!”
Sense of invulnerability, immortality The rules don’t apply to me Leads to dangerous risk-taking behaviors
Finding your identity (Identity Crisis) 4 possible outcomes:Achievement,Foreclosure, Moratorium, Diffusion
Achievement – you know who you are
Foreclosure – you are what others want you to be
Moratorium – actively exploring your options
Diffusion – not even trying
Other issues adding to the “crisis” Declines in self-esteem Increased rates in depression, suicide, violence, etc.
Personality Development Babies are born with individual differences in personality that are reflected in their pattern of emotional reactions, Finding your identity
4 Types of “Temperament Easy,Difficult,Slow to warm up,Shy
Easy good natured, adaptable
Difficult moody, intense reactions to change
Slow-to-warm-up cautious, mild reaction to change
Shy timid, inhibited, fearful of change
Personality unique pattern of thoughts and feelings and behaviors persist over time
Triait threroy 5 factors model (The Big 5)Openness, conscientiousness, extro versiom, agreeableness, neuroticism
openness (intellect)open minded, artistic, curious, brood culture intrest
conscientiousness responsible, self disciplened, organized, achieveing, hard working,
extro version sociable, outgoing, talkative, fun, loving, affectionate
agreeableness good nature, soft hearted, cooperative, trusting, helpful
neuroticism emotionally unstable insecure, moody anxious, etc
psychodynamic theroy Frued - Behavior results from unconscious psychological forces
Behavior results from unconscious psychological forces: Most mental processes are unconscious,Mental processes can be in conflict,Childhood experiences shape personality,Personality development involves learning to self-regulate our sexual & aggressive feelings
Frued Theroy Conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
Conscious thoughts you are currently thinking
Preconscious: thoughts in the background, but easily accessed
Unconscious: thoughts you are unaware of (repressed)
Our personality is made of 3 parts Id, Super ego, Ego
ID Personality instant gratification only cares getting what and don't care who they hurt - born with it
Super Ego moral gardian knows right and wrong, doesn't make wrong dicisions. Wants to be well-mannered - parents teach this
Ego (you)ID vs Super Ego, you in the middle making choices depending on events.
Defense Mechanisms conflicts between ID and super ego causes anxiety
To avoid the anxiety Rationalization-justifying something you’ve done,Repression-“forgetting” painful mem, Denial,Intellectualization-ignoring emotions, Reaction Formation,Projection-unacceptable feelings onto others,Displacement-impulses on someone less threatening
How Personality Develops Urges within the Id push children to develop their personality through 5 “psychosexual” stages.
How Personality Develops In each stages, pleasure must be satisfied to promote normal personality development.
How Personality Develops If not, the child will become “fixated” in that stage, and will develop personality “quirks” as a result.
Oral-->Mouth (newborn-2yrs)exploring world with mouth, bottle/toys, over and under feed will lead to anerexic or obesity
anal-->anus (2-3yrs)start feeling something comming out. Feel the sensation. Parents yell when making mess cause child to become anal retentive, parents dont do anything child becomes slobs
Phalicstage-->Genitals (preschool age:3-6 yrs) lerning new parts of body. Sensitive. don't make a big deal of it.
Latency-->None (6-puberty)momma boys later daddy boys, or daayd girls then mamma girls
genitals-->genitals (puberty to adult)relize what those parts are for and then uses them
Alfred Adler Compensation and Inferiority complex
Compensation ones effort to overcome imagined or real personal weakness. weak, wear too much make-up, act oppisote than really are.
Inferiority complex fixation on feelings of personal emotions and social paralysis. Not liking something about your self and it taking over your life.
Jung Emphasized unconscious processes, but suggested there were both positive and negative forces:Two forces of the unconscious mind,Collective Unconscious and Personal Unconscious
Personal Unconscious Repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, which may enter consciousness if something triggers it.
Collective Unconscious Memories and behavior patterns that are inherited from past generations and therefore shared by all humans.
Horney Personality development is shaped by our relationship with our parents as they raise us
Humanistic theories stress the potential for growth and change,Focus on here and now, not the past We are responsible for our own lives. Given reasonable conditions, people develop in socially desirable directions.
Carl Rogers when your personality does not match who you are, unditional positaive regard, Conditional positive regard
Personality Assessment Yes/No or Multiple Choice Standardized Grading (no interpretation by the therapist) Limitations
Projective Tests Rorschach Test Use of ambiguous stimuli The client “projects” their unconscious feelings onto the picture Therapist interprets the meaning Used by psychodynamic theorists
Created by: manava854