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RT Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
Accessory muscles of breathing Assist the diaphragm and intercostals when ventilation demand increases, more active during forceful breathing
Acinus Functional structure which is basic gas exchanging unit of lung, formed in last weeks of fetal development
Alae Teo external flared openings
Alveolar-capillary membrane Tissue that separates from blood in the lung, consists of alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium
Alveoli Ducts that end in the lungs in clusters of these
Angle of Louis Slight oblique angle where manubrium articulates with body of sternum
Anterior nares Opening to the nose
Apices Uppermost portions of the lungs
Carina Bifurcation of trachea into right and left mainstream bronchi
Cilia Extenstion of mucosal lining of respiratory tract
Costal cartilage Fibrous tissues that connect ribs to the sternum and to each other anteriorly
Costophrenic angle Acute angle where costal pleura meets the diaphragm
Cricoid cartilage Ring of cartilage that forms the lower border of the larynx
Diaphragm Large dome shaped muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen, primary muscle of ventilation
Ductus arteriosus Vascular channel in the fetus that joint the pulmonary artery directly to the descending aorta, normally closes at birth
Ductus venosus 2/3 of fetus blood flows through this to bypass the liver's circulation and flows into the inferior vena cava
Epiglottis Flat cartilage that extends from the base of tongue backward and upward
Eusiachian tubes Bilateral tubes that connect the nasopharynx to the middle ear and mastoid sinus
External nares The two flared openings of the nose
External oblique Abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle of ventilation
External respiration Exchange between gas of the atmosphere and blood
Fissures Narrow clefts or slits, the lines that divide or separate the lobes of the lung glottis
Foramen ovale Openong in the septum between the right and the left atria in the frtal heart, provides a bypass for blood that would otherwise flow to the fetal lungs
Gladiolus Body of sternum
Glottis Variable opening between the vocal cords
Hilum Vertical opening on either wide of the mediastinum through which all the airways and pulmonary vessels pass
Hypopharynx Lower portion of the upper airway between the oropharynx and larynx
Intercostal nerves Formed before birth and are the primary components of the somatic nervous system that carry nervous signals from the brain stem to the respiratory muscles
Internal oblique Abdominal muscle group that functions as an accessory muscle of ventilation
Internal respiration Exchange of gases between blood and tissues
Laryngopharynx 3 parts of the pharynx
Larynx Lies below the hypopharynx and is forme by a complex arrangement of nine cartilages and numerous muscles
Lobes Major divisions of the lungs, right lung has three and left has two
Manubrium Upper triangular portion of sternum
Mediastinum Portion if thoracic cavity lying in the middle of the thorax, extends from vertebral column to sternum
Mucocilliary escalator Stroking action of millions of cilia propels the surround mucus at a speed of about 2 cm per minute
Nasopharynx Upper portion of airway behind nasal and oral cavities
Palate Boney plate that separate the nasal cavity from the oral cavities
Parietal pleura Thin membrane covering surface of the chest wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm
Pharynx Region where the nasal and oral cavities open into
Phrenic nerves Paired nerves that originate as branches of spinal nerves C3-5, lass down along th mediastinum
Pores of Kohn Openings between th adjacent alveoli
Primary lobule Single terminal bronchioles that supplies a cluster of respiratory bronchioles, also referred to as the acinus
Psuedostratified epithelia Pertwining to epithelial cell type that appears to be organized in layers, cell actually contacts basement membrane
Pulmonary surfactant Detergent like substance secreted into alveoli that reduces surface tension and stabilizes alveoli
Rectus abdominis muscles A group of abdominal muscles that contributing to inspiration by contracting at end exhalation
Scalene muscles Three muscles arising from the cervical vertebrae, inserting into first and second ribs, accessory muscles of ventilation
Segments Minor divisions of lung, segment is associated with major branch of airway
Soft palate Posterior portion of anterior roof of oral cavity
Sternal angle Fused connection between manubrium and body
Sternocleidomastoid muscles Originate from manubrium and clavicle and insert on mastoid process of temporal bone
Sternum Elongated flattened bone forming the middle portion of the anterior thorax
Suprasternal notch Located above the sternum, superior due of the manubrium which forms a shallow depression called a notch
Trachea Large main intrathorqcic airway
True ribs Pairs that are 1-7 and are attached directly to the sternum
False ribs Pairs that are 8-12 and are either indirectly attached to the sternum or not attached to the sternum
Floating ribs Pairs that are 11 and 12 and are not attached to the sternum
Turbinates Boney structures that extend from the lateral walls of the interior nasal passages
Type 1 pneumocyte Cuboidal epithelia that line the blind tubules of acinum continue to differentiate into flatter squamous epithelial cells
Type 2 pneumocyte Cuboidal epithelia that line the blind tubules of acinum continue to differentiate into rounded secretory cells
Uvula portion of soft palate that hangs down into the posterior portion of the oral cavity
Vallecula folds that from a space between the tongue and the epiglottis which is a key landmark in intubation
Visceral pleura thin membrane covered by mesothelial cells that cover entire surface of lung
Xiphoid Process lower part of sternum
Created by: brianna_lynn