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RADT 335 - Unit 3

Radiation Protection

agency that makes recommendations to each nation regarding dose limits and protection standards ICRP
The U.S. agency that issues reports of dose limits that should be followed in the US NCRP
agency that looks at epidemiologic data and makes assessments for radiation induced cancer and genetic effects UNSCEAR
federal agency that enforces the possession, use and production of atomic energy; DOES NOT INSPECT IMAGING FACILITIES NRC
a state that has set up a contract with the NRC for the state to oversee licensing and regulating of radioisotopes agreement state
agency that oversees radiation in the environment EPA
agency that conducts on site inspections of x-ray equipment, installations and maintenance FDA
agency concered with the employees' "Right to Know" and training for employees on occupational exposure to radiation OSHA
person that develops the radiation safety program, provides guidance for the radiation safety program, and facilitates ongoing operation of the radiation safety program RSO
person who would acquire funding for radiation safety program and oversees P & P development (does not necessarily write the P&P) for the radiation safety program radiology administrator
person who counsels individuals when individual reach ALARA level I or II RSO
person who maintains the dosimeter records for all occupationally exposed individuals at a facility RSO
ALARA may also be known as OPTIMIZATION
radiation exposure received by members of the general population who are not employed as radiation workers nonoccupational exposure
legislation that required the establishment of minimal standards for the accreditation of education programs for persons administering radiation procedures Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act of 1981
legislation that updates previous bill where it will now be mandatory to abide by the minimal educational standards and states not following could be denied Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement CARE bill
Care bill stands for Consistency, Accuracy, Responsibility, and Excellence in Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy
erythema, blood changes, epilation, ARS early effects of radiation
early effects are also classified as nonstochastic (deterministic)
cataract formation, fibrosis, organ atrophy, reduced fertility, sterility late effects
carcinogenesis, cataractogenesis, genetic effects late effects
late effects such as cancer and genetic effects may also be classified as stochastic (probablistic)
true/false: annual occupational effective dose limit includes background radiation & personal imaging procedure doses false
type of dose that takes into account the tissue weighting factor and radiation weighting factor effective dose
annual dose limit for whole body for occupational exposure 5 rem (50 mSv)
cumulative dose limit for whole body for occupational exposure 1 rem x age (10 mSv)
dose limit for lens of the eye 15 rem (150 mSv)
dose limit for localized skin, hands, or feet 50 rem (500 mSv)
dose limit for public for frequent exposure 0.1 rem (1 mSv)
dose limit for public for infrequent exposure 0.5 rem (5 mSv)
dose limit for students under the age of 18 0.1 rem (1 mSv)
monthly dose limit for pregnant radiation worker 0.05 rem (0.5 mSv)
entire gestation dose limit for pregnant radiation worker 0.5 rem (5 mSv)
to convert rem to Sv divide rem by 100
to convert rem to mSv multiply rem by 10 (or figure it out from decimal placement of rem to Sv conversion)
to convert Sv to rem multiply Sv by 100
to convert mSv to rem divide mSv by 10
theory that suggests a potential benefit from moderate radiation exposure radiation hormesis
Who needs a dosimeter? anyone who might receive 10% or more of the annual occupational EfD in any month
where do you wear a single dosimeter (according to text) outside apron at collar level
four types of personnel dosimeters film badge; osl; TLD; pocket ionization chamber
what is an extremity dosimeter for? measuring the EqD to the hands of wearer
components of a film badge aluminum and copper filter, durable plastic cover, light tight envelope containing film
advantages of film badge permanent record, can reread exposure if necessary, economical, mechanical integrity
disadvantages of film badge sensitive to heat/humidity; has to be shipped out for readings; most sensitive to 50 keV
most common type of dosimeter OSL
what is "stimulated" in an OSL aluminum oxide detector
how is OSL read? detector exposued to laser light-sensing material (Aluminum Oxide) begins to emit light in direct proportion to energy received - light intensity is detected and translated to exposure readout
advantages of OSL sensitive to 1 mrem; covers radiation energies from 5 keV-40MeV; can measure up to 1000 mrem
disadvantages has to be shipped out for readings
types of filters in the OSL aluminum, tin, and copper and possibly unfiltered area for dynamic/static exposure determination
pocket ionization chamber components ionization chamber; quartz fiber, positive & negative electrodes
what does a pocket ionization chamber resemble? fountain pen
advantages of pocket ionization chamber provides immediate exposure readout for workers in high radiation areas
disadvantages of pocket ionization chamber expensive; if not read each day can give false reading due to electrical charge escaping over time; can discharge electrical charge if dropped; no permanent record
chemical compoun used in the TLD lithium fluoride
how is a TLD read? heating of lithium fluoride crystals; crystals give off light in direct proportion to radiation exposure; light is detected and translated to exposure readout
advantages of TLD senitvie to doses as low as 5 mR; not affected by normal humidity, pressure or temp; reusable
disadvantages of TLD reading of TLD erases stored info so TLD can only be read once; TLD analyzer must be calibrated
letter M on a dosimeter report would indicate what? reading below minimum detectable level
if you change jobs, what document is important to take with you to the new job? summary of occupational exposure report or some type of radiation exposure history
what radiation dteaction survey instrument has an audio amplifier and speaker that alerts the operator to the presence of ionizing radiation Geiger-Muller detector
which radiation survey instrument has a check source of a weak long-lived radioisotope to help keep the instrument calibrated? Geiger-Muller detector
disadvantage of the Geiger-Muller detector? different energies may cause instrument to respond differently; can saturate or jam when placed in a high radiation area giving a false reading
what radiation survey instrument can discriminate between alpha and beta particles? proportional counter
what radiation survey instrument is used as a rate meter and cumulative exposure instrument cutiepie
advantages of the cutiepie? can measure intensities between 1mR/hour to several thousand; can totla exposures; can be used to monitor scatter radiation rates as well as radioisotope rates
disadvantages of cutiepie? large size; must be adequately warmed up; can be used to detect exposures in diagnostic testing due to short exposure times
what device would a medical physicist use to perform an annual checkoff of a diagnostic x-ray machine? ionization chamber and electometer
what type of tests would a ionization chamber and electometer be used for? mR/mAs(output); reproducibility, linearity, beam quality (half-value layer), and entrance exposure rates
name ways to decrease voluntary motion effective communication, immobilization, short exposure time
Shielding should be a secondary protection method with ______ being first and foremost collimation
name types of gonad shiedling flat contact shields, shadow shields, shaped contact shields
By placing a patient in a PA vs AP position for a scoliosis series, the radiographer will reduce the dose to the patient's breast tissue by as much as ____% 95
describe appropriate technique selection for radiation protection high kV, high mA, low time (lower mAs)
How accurate should the collimated light field be? within 2% of the SID
How do you check for accurate collimation field size? 8 or 9 penny test
What is the minimum distance between the collimator and the patient's skin? 15 cm
Why do we use filtration? decrease patient dose
Why do we use a compensating filter? improve image quality (some dose reduction occurs also)
In a tube that operates above 70 kV, what is the filtration requirement? 2.5 mm Al
filtration that is part of the construction of the tube such as the glass envelope, insulating oil, and collimation aperatures is known as what type of filtration? inherent
the thickness of an absorber necessary to reduce the intensity of the xray beam to 1/2 of the initial value HVL
what happens to patient dose when grids are utilized? increases
what is the function of a grid? improve image quality by removing scatter photons from the image
what are some benefits of a repeat analysis program within an imaging facility? creates heightened awareness and thus a desire to produce optimal images & identifies educational needs for improving image quality
what is the significance in radiation protection of a repeated image? doubles the patient dose
pre op chest x-rays & pre-employment lumbar spine screenings are examples of what? unnecessary exams
what are benefits to going digital? takes human error out of the processing equation; images can be manipulated decreasing needs for repeat
minimum SSD for stationary fluoro? 15 inches
minimum SSD for mobile fluoro? 12 inches
exposure rate limit for image intensified fluoroscopy? 10R/min
As FPS increases in fluoro, what happens to patient dose? increases
pulsed fluroscopy ______ patient dose decreases
magnification in fluoroscopy _____ patient dose increases
minimum SSD for mobile radiography? 12 inches
most common method to express patient's exposure entrance skin exposure (ESE)
performing x-rays on women of childbearing age only during the first 10 days following the onset of menses is known as what? 10 day rule
if you have to perform an exam on a pregnant patient, what methods will provide the best radiation protection? best technique for the given body part, collimation, shielding
what methods should be utilized when performing exams on children? short exposure time, limit views if allowed, communication, collimate, shield
what benefits do technologist certification provide to patients regrading radiation protection? protects patients from overexposure due to education of the technologist
mobile radiography, mobile fluoroscopy, and stationary fluoroscopy ______ radiographer dose increase
examples of secondary radiation scatter, leakage
Backup timers for AEC should be set: as close to the expected exposure time as possible
The GSD for U.S. population 0.2 mSv (20 mrem)
true/false: if radiographers must restrain a patient for a procedure, they should never stand in the primary beam true
rotating personnel through various working environments (ER, fluoro, surgery, portables, etc.) uses what cardinal principle as the basis for protection time
what must be posted in or on the door of a radiographic exam room? caution sign
determination of shielding or barrier thicknesses is made by medical physicist
factors that are considered when determining barrier thicknesses distance, occupancy, workload, use
area where personnel are not issued dosimeters or general public may occupay where doses should not exceed more than 2 mrem weekly or 100 mrem annually uncontrolled
area where persons trained in radiation safety occupy, wear dosimeters and where doses should not exceed more than 5000 mrem annually controlled
defines how much the radiation machine is working or the time that the machine is actually delivering radiation; measured in mA minutes per week workload
defines amount of "on" time for the beam when directed at a specific barrier use factor
where should the x-ray tube be at in mobile fluoroscopy for greatest radiation protection on bottom of c-arm under patient
lead apron requirement when operating a c-arm 0.5 mm Pb/eq
minimum shielding requirement for the bucky slot cover 0.25 mm Pb/eq
minimum lead shield requirement for protective curtain on stationary fluoro 0.25 mm Pb/eq
which angle from the primary beam should you attempt to attain after attempting distance and shielding from an x-ray source 90 degrees
how far should the cord on a mobile unit allow the operator to stand away from the x-ray source 6 feet
true/false: as a pregnant radiographer, you should be removed from any rotations that are considered "high" dose areas false
maternity aprons have a minimum shielding requirement of 0.5 mm Pb/eq
tube housing does what for protection? protects patient and radiographer from off focus radiation (some leakage radiation still goes through)
sheilding requirement for thyroid shields 0.5 mm Pb/eq
shielding requirement for protective eyewear 0.35 mm Pb/eq
shielding requirement for protective gloves 0.25 mm Pb/eq
minimum shielding requirement for personnel lead aprons for general purpose radiography at 100 kV? 0.25 mm Pb/eq
type of barrier that lies parallel to beam path secondary
type of barrier that lies perpendicular to beam path primary
thickness of a secondary barrier 1/32 inches
thickness of a primary barrier 1/16 inches
primary barrier must overlap secondary barrier by ____ inche(s) 1/2
window of a control booth should be made of _____ mm Pb/eq 1.5
radiographers exposure rate in the control booth should not exceed _____ per week 1 mSv (100 mrem)
how many times should radiation scatter before reaching area behind a secondary barrier 2
the control booth is considered to be a ______ barrier secondary
lead aprons are considered to be a ______ barrier secondary
how tall must a primary barrier be? 7 feet
if distance is decreased to 1/2 original value, what happens to x-ray intensity? increases by factor of 4
three cardinal rules of radiation protection time, distance, shiedling
which of the three cardinal rules of radiation protection is the most effective means of reducing exposure? distance
______ poses the greatest occupational hazard in diagnostic radiology scattered radiation
true/false: you should know the dose limits for radiographers, general public (frequent and infrequent exposures), and pregnant radiographers TRUE
Created by: hschmuck1