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Psych Test 1

Introduction and Chapter 1

QuestionAnswer
Aristole Greek naturalist and philosopher who believed in nurture over nature
Plato Thought traits were inborn
John Locke Thought mind was blank at birth, 1600s
Descartes Some ideas are innate, 1600s
Charles Darwin Proposed natural selection
Birth of Pyschology as we know it 1879
Wilhelm Wundt Pyscholoy's first experiment, testing time lags
Pyschology came from Biology and philosophy
Ivan Pavlov Study of learning, physiologist
Sigmund Freud personality theorist, physician
Jean Piaget Observer of children, biologist
William James author of 1890 psychology tetbook, philosopher
Hermann Ebbinghaus in germany reports first experiments on memory in 1885
Edward L. Thorndike in the US confudcts the first experiments of animal learning in 1898
American Pyschological Association is founded 1892
Alred Binet and Theodore Simonq devise the first intelligence test for us with Parisian schoolchildren in 1905
Margaret Foy Washburn the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psycholog, synthesizes research on animal behavior in The Animal Mind 1908
Mary Whiton Clakins created paired-assocaites tencqieu fro studying memeoryl because president of American Psychological Association president
John B. Watson in the US champions psychology as the science of behavior
Wundt's basic research tool introspection
Introspection self-examination of one's own emotional states and mental processes
psychology the science of behavior and mental processes
Until the 1920's psychology was defined as the science of mental life
From the 1920s to the 1960s dismissed introspection
From the 1920s to 1960s, psychology was definsed as the sciecne of observable behavior
Behavior is anthing an organsm does, ny action we can observe and record
Mental pocesses are the internal subjective experineces we infer from behvior--sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts beliefs and feelings
Pyschology's quest is to describe and explain nature
Neuroscience how the body and brain create emotions, memories and sensory experiences
Evolutionary How natural selection favors traits that promote the perpetuation of one's genes
Behavioral Genetics how much do our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Behavioral how we learn observable responses
Cognitive how we process, store and retrieve information
Social-cultural how behavior and thinking vart across situations and cultures
Psychology's Big Issues Stability v. Change, Rationality v. Irrationality, Nature v. Nurture
Stabilit v. Change Do we become ovlder versions of our same old selves or do people change?
Rationality v. Irrationality how wise are we? we can recongie patterns but sometimes we have insufficient rationality. we believe anecdotres over facts
Nature v. Nurture are intelligence, personality, obestity and psychological disorders influence by heredity or environment? are gender differneces bioloically predsposed or socially constructed?
Psychology's Subfields Basic research, applied reearch, clinical psychologists and psychiatrists
Basic research builds psychology's knowledge base
Created by: lilee256