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Ed Psych Chp5

Educationa Psychology Review - Learning in Context Chpt 5

Stimulus that increases the likelihood that a particular response will follow. Antecedent Stimulus
Form of learning in which a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement. Operant Conditioning
Consequence of a response that leads to increased frequency of the response. Reinforcer
Consequence that satisfies a biologically built-in need. Primary Reinforcer
Consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcer. Secondary Reinforcer
Phenomenon in which a response increases as a result of the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus. Positive Reinforcement
Reinforcer that comes from the outside environment, rather than from within the learner. Extrinsic Reinforcer
Reinforcer provided by oneself or inherent in a task being performed. Intrinsic Reinforcer
Phenomenon in which a response increases as a result of the removal (rather than presentation) of a stimulus. Negative Reinforcement
Consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows. Punishment
Punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus, presumably one a learner finds unpleasant. Presentation Punishment
Punishment involving removal of an existing stimulus, presumably one a learner finds desirable and doesn't want to lose. Removal Punishment
Person who demonstrates a behavior for someone else. Model
Individual whose behavior is directly observed in one's immediate environment. Live Model
Real or fictional character portrayed int he media that influences an observer's behavior. Symbolic Model
Phenomenon in which a response increases in frequency when another (observed) person in reinforced for that response. Vicarious Reinforcement
Phenomenon in which a response decreases in frequency when another (observed) person is punished for that response. Vicarious Punishment
Concept, symbol, strategy, procedure, or other culturally constructed mechanism that helps people think about and respond to situations more effectively. Cognitive Tool
Process of molding a child's behavior and beliefs to be appropriate for the cultural group. Socialization
Sense of confusion when a student encounters a culture with behavioral expectations very different from those previously learned. Culture Shock
Situation in which a child's home culture and the school culture hold conflicting expectations for the child's behavior. Cultural Mismatch
Mutual cause-and-effect relationships among environment, behavior, and personal variables as these three factors influence learning and development. Reciprocal Causation
Gradual disappearance of an acquired response; in the case of a response acquired through operant conditioning, it results from repeated lack of reinforcement for the response. Extinction
Classroom strategy in which desired behaviors are reinforced by tokens that the learner can use to "purchase" a variety of other, backup reinforcers. Token Economy
Situation in which one event (e.g., reinforcement) happens only after another event (e.g., a specific response) has already occurred (one event is contingent on the other's occurrence). Contingency
Two or more behaviors that cannot be performed simultaneously. Incompatible Behaviors
Process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations to a desired behavior. Shaping
Four General Forms of Primary Reinforcers Food, water, sources of warmth, and oxygen (physical affection)
Four Characteristics of Successful/Influential Models *Competence *Prestige and Power *"Gender-Appropriate" Behavior *Behavior Relevant to One's Own Situation
Learning Advantages of Distributed Cognition *Must clarify/organize ideas to explain *Tend to elaborate *Exposed to views of others (more accurate) *Model effective thinking/studying *Detect flaws in thinking *Discover other cultural interpretations *Gain more sophisticated view - nature of le
How Does "Cultural Mismatch" negatively impact academic achievement in some students? Any cultural mismatch between home and school can interfere with students' adjustments to the school setting and ultimately with their academic achievement as well. Often children try to fit in yet find home/school inconsistencies difficult to resolve.
Variables that Impact Academic Achievement in Students from Lowere SES Backgrounds *Poor Nutrition *Inadequate Housing *Gaps in Background Knowledge *Neighborhood Influences *Lower-Quality Schools
Four Conditions to Help Students Learn Effectively From Models *Attention *Retention *Motor Reproduction *Motivation
Effective Reinforcers: K-2 *Concrete Reinforcers *Teacher Approval *Privileges *"Grown-Up" Responsibilities
Effective Reinforcers: 3-5 *Concrete Reinforcers *Teacher Approval and Positive Feedback *"Good Citizen" Certificates *Free Time
Effective Reinforcers: 6-8 *Free Time with Friends *Acceptance and Approval from Peers *Teacher Approval and Support *Specific Positive Feedback from Academic Performance
Effective Reinforcers: 9-12 *Opportunities to Interact with Friends *Specific Positive Feedback about Academic Performance *Public Recognition for Group Performance *Positions of Responsibility
Strategies to Help Produce Positive Behaviors (1) *Cue Appropriate Behaviors *Reinforce Desired Behaviors *Remember Students Differ in Reinforcing Consequences *Follow Through with Reinforcements and Consequences *Make Students Aware of Contingencies *Give Feedback About Specific Behaviors
Strategies to Help Produce Positive Behaviors (2) *Keep Vicarious Punishment and Reinforcement in Mind *Provide Opportunities for Students to Practice Desired Behaviors in a Variety of Contexts *Continue Reinforcement to Prevent Extinction
Created by: zagabeenie
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