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Radiographic Density

Ch 28

QuestionAnswer
_______ is the degree of overall blackening of the film. (photographic property that comprise visibility of detail) Density
______ is the concept of density as it is displayed on a soft-copy monitor for digital images. brightness
________ describes the digital processing that produces changes in density/brightness. Window level
What range of OD is visible to the human eye? OD 0.25-2.50
What is the major consideration in assessing density verification? That proper densities are visible throughout the anatomical area of interest on the image.
The ____ image has received too many photons and has recorded too much information. overexposed
If any image is overexposed, the ________can be adjusted to fix the density of the image. window level
Whenever a choice must be made between excess and insufficient density, the best decision is always the choice that will produce the ________ image. overexposed
If exposure conditions push into the toe or shoulder regions of the curve, dramatic _____________ changes can be seen. film density
_______ is the controlling factor of density. mAs
______ is the influencing factor of density kVp
mAs should be used as a principle method for adjusting for _______ or _______ density. insufficient/excessive
_______is determined by the characteristics of the IR. density
_______ is the ability of the film to stop light. Opacity
If a region of a radiograph has an OD of 1.0 only _______ of the incident light is transmitted through the radiograph in that region. 10% or 1/10
The straight line portion of the D lo E curve, film density is _________ to the log relative exposure. approximately proportional
Will doubling the exposure result in a doubling the film density? NO
Image density/brightness on the display monitor is controlled by ___________. window leveling
Setting the correct ____ is still critical in determining the proper digital image receptor exposure. mAs
Digital image histograms are ____________ of the exposure to the IR. graphic representations
As mAs increases, ________ increases proportionally and ________ also increases. exposure/film density
The reciprocity law fails for __________ or _________ exposure times. extremely short or long
If the mAs used to create one image is the same as the mAs used to create a second image of the same structure, then both images should have the same __________. film density
The minimum change necessary to cause a visible shift in film density is ______ of mAs or any other influencing factors that would equal this change. 30%
_______ is mainly controlled by the radiographer, but can also be preset with a computerized exposure system. mAs
A _______ or _________ can eliminate the excess information and reveal details within the range of human visual ability. bright light/scanner
The general rule of thumb for mAs changes is to make adjustments in increments of ______ or ______. doubles/halves
Kilovoltage has a __________ effect on density. profound
Kilovoltage contols the average ____ of the x-ray photon produced at the anode target. energy
The 15% rule is used as a guide to maintain the same image receptor exposure film density when _______ changes. kilovoltage
The 15% rule will always change the ______ of the image. contrast
A radiograph of the elbow is produced using 4 mAs at 60 kVp. What kVp would be required to halve the exposure to the IR. 51 kVp
The 15% rule may vary from a 15% rule to a _____% rule. 25
Motion has what impact on density? none
What is grid ratio? 16:1 and 8:1; amount of lead strips in a grid
An increase in pt size will ______ density and a decrease in pt size will _____ density. decrease; increase
Increase in field size will ____ density. increase
An increase lead in the grid will ____ density. decrease
An increase in screen speed will ____ density.(more efficient) increase
What kind of relationship is distance to density? an inverse relationship (inverse square law)
A decrease in OID will result in an increase in density: this is an example of a _______. inverse relationship
Increased generator will result in an ______ density. (high field, more efficient) increase
A radiograph of the chest with pneumothorax will result in a a radiograph with more ______. density
Pulmonary edema would show on a radiograph with ______ density. Less
The two photographic factors that allow detail to be seen are ______ and ______. density/contrast
As developer solution temperature increases, film density will _______. increase
If a satisfactory exposure is obtained with 20 mAs at 72", what mAs will be required to maintain the same exposure at 40"? 6.2 mAs
If a satisfactory PA chest radiograph is made at 72" with 4 mAs, what mAs, will be required at 56"? 2.5 mAs
A radiograph of the elbow is produced using a 4 mAs at 60 kVp. What kVp would be required to halve the exposure to the IR? 51 kVp
___________ affects kVp's affect on density. generator efficiency
Thicker anatomical parts should be placed on the _____ side and smaller anatomical parts should be placed on the _____ side. cathode/anode
______ charged electrons cause a blooming effect. negatively
If a radiograph using 40 mAs (400mA at 0.10 sec.) produced a radiograph with satisfactory density, what new time should be used at 200 mA? 40 mAs/200mA = .20 sec
A radiograph of the forearm is produced using 4 mAs at 55kVp. What kVp would be required to double the exposure? 63 kVp (55 kVp + 8.25 kVp =63 kVp (63.25 kVp.)
An x-ray exposure of 240 mR is recorded at a distance of 20 inches. If the same technical factors are used, what will the exposure be if the distance is increased to 40 inches? mAs2=60
If a satisfactory density is obtained with 40 mAs at 72 in., what mAs is required to maintain the same density at 40 in.? mAs2=12
What is the proper mAs for use with an 80 RS system when technical factors of 55 kVp and 5 mAs produce an acceptable image with a 200 RS system? 12.5 mAs
An increase in patient size will ___________ density. A decrease in patient size will _______ density. decrease; increase
An increase in beam restriction will ________ density. decrease