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psychology ch. 8.

Human Development

The study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the life span. Developmental psychology
Some children exhibit resilience Nature-nurture debate
are used to obtain information at a particular point in time—Different groups, different ages, tested once. Cross sectional studies
are conducted to evaluate changes over a period of time—same group follows over time. Longitudinal studies
group of individuals born in the same period. Cohorts
proposed that cognitive ability develops in four stages, each involving a qualitatively different way of reasoning and understanding the world. Piaget
Four stages of Development 1.Sensorimotor stage 2.Preoperational stage 3.Concrete operational stage 4.Formal operational stage
A framework to organize and interpret information Schema
The ability to incorporate new knowledge into existing knowledge Assimilation
The ability to adjust schemas to the environment Accommodation
During the ?, infants gain an understanding of the world through their senses and motor activities. Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
Major achievement of the sensorimotor stage is called? Object permanence
Representing things mentally that they know are physically there Object Permanence
During the ?, children acquire symbolic function Preoperational Stage (age 2-7)
During the preoperational stage, children exhibit what? egocentrism
In the ?, children acquire the concept of conservation concrete operational stage (age 7 to 11 or 12 years)
Conservation develops because children begin to understand Reversibility
In the ? preadolescents and adolescents acquire the capacity for hypothetico-deductive thinking formal operational stage (age 11 or 12 years and beyond)
The ability to apply logical thought to abstract and hypothetical situations in the past, present, and future. hypothetico-deductive thinking
theorists argue that stage-like advances in cognition are due to improvements in processes such as working memory Information processing
Vygotsky’s ? emphasizes that cognitive development occurs within a sociocultural contest in which parents and teachers provide age-appropriate guidance. sociocultural approach
proposed a stage theory of moral development Lawrence Kohlberg
classified moral reasoning into three levels with each level having two stages Lawrence Kohlberg
Lowest level of moral development; “Right” is whatever gains a rewards or avoids punishment Preconventional level
Right and wrong are based on the internalized standards of others “Right” is whatever is approved by others or is consistent with the laws of society Conventional Level
Highest level of moral reasoning; “Right” is whatever furthers basic human rights Postconventional Level
proposed eight psychosocial stages that encompass the entire lifespan Erik Erikson
the view that changes happen throughout the entire human lifespan literally from “womb to tomb.” Lifespan perspective
Birth to 1 year Basic trust vs. basic mistrust
1 to 3 years Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
3 to 6 years Initiative vs. guilt
6 years to puberty Industry vs. Inferiority
Adolescence Identity vs. Role confusion
Young adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation
Middle adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation
Late adulthood Ego integrity vs. Despair
Zygote attaches to the uterine lining; Ends 1 to 2 weeks after conception Period of the zygote
Major systems, organs, and structures of the body develop; 3 to 8 weeks after conception Period of the embryo
Rapid growth and development of body structures, organs, and systems; 9 weeks after conception until birth Period of the fetus
a newborn infant up to one month old, comes equipped with an impressive range of reflexes neonate
built in responses to certain stimuli that they need to ensure survival in their new world. reflexes
found that infants prefer to fixate some objects over others Robert Fantz
Motor development is largely determined by ? Maturation
the natural unfolding of skills and development that has more to do with genetics then environment Maturation
Gibson and Walk designed an apparatus called the ? to measure infants’ ability to perceive depth visual cliff
A person’s behavior style or characteristic way of responding to the environment Temperament
Three general types of temperament emerged from the study: Easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up
is the strong affectionate bond a child forms with the mother or primary caregiver Attachment
? identified three general types of temperament Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1970)
? found that contact comfort forms the basis of attachment in rhesus monkeys Harry Harlow
Human infants exhibit ? and ?once attachment has formed at about 6 to 8 months of age. Separation anxiety and stranger anxiety
o About 65% of infants o Use mother as a secure base for exploring o Distressed by separation from caregivers, greet caregivers, when they return o More cooperative an content than other infants o Display better social skills as preschool children Secure attachment
o About 20% of infants o Not responsive to mother, not troubled when she leaves o May actively avoid contact with mother after separation Avoidant attachment
o 10 to 15% of infants o Seek close contact with mother, and tend not to branch out and explore o After separation, may display anger toward mother; not easily comforted Resistent attachment
o 5 to 10% of infants o Protest separation, but exhibit contradictory and disoriented behavior when reunited Disorganized/disoriented attachment
Make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioning obedience, punish transgressions Authoritarian parents
Set high but realistic standards, reason with the child, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence Authoritative parents
Make few rules or demands, allow children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior Permissive parents
? identified 5 stages people go through in coming to terms with death Elizabeth Kibler-Boss
5 stages people go through in coming to terms with death are:? o Denial o Anger o Bargaining o Depression o Acceptance
Created by: Taylor Boyleston
Popular Psychology sets




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