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Ch 8 Cogn and Lang

Language

QuestionAnswer
Language symbol and a set of rules for combiningg them that provides a vehicle for communication
grammar a set of rules for combining the words used in a given language
phoneme 2 change in this changes the meaning of a spoken word, much as changing a letter in a printed word changes its meaning
phoneme the smallest unit of sound that affects the meaning of speech
phoneme examples - "tea" has a meaning different from "sea" - "sight" has a meaning different from "sigh"
morpheme the smallest unit of language that has meaning
morpheme examples because they have meaning, "dog" and run" are this
morpheme examples 2 prefixes such as "un-" and suffixes such as "-ed" are this too because they have meaning , even though the words can not stand on their own
word unit of language composed of one or more morphemes
syntax the set of rules that govern the formation of phrases and sentences in a language
syntax 2 a subject and verb must be combined in a sentence, adjectives typically appear before the nouns that they modify
semantics rules governing the meaning of the words
semantics examples the noun "bouquets" cannot be modified by the word "rapid"
deep structures an abstract representation of the underlying meaning of a given sentence
surface structures the order in which words are arranged in sentences
Noam Chomsky Started a revolution in the study of language in 1965
Noam Chomsky 2 argued that if linguist looked only at the language that people produced, they would never uncover the principles that that account for all aspects of language
social conventions
non-verb cues
babbling the first sounds infants make that resemble speech
babbling 2 infants all around the world do this during there first year of life
babbling examples babies shorten vocab to "da" "duh" "ma"
telegraphic speech babies start using two-word combinations to form efficient little sentences
telegraphic speech 2 they are brief and to the point, leaving out anything that is not absolutely essential
language acquisition device (LAD) evidence that supports claim of a genetic predisposition for language comes from these studies
language acquisition device (LAD) 2 child with this have trouble acquiring language despite having otherwise normal mental abilities, normal hearing, and adequate early exposure to language sounds
language acquisition device (LAD) 3 runs in families; defect in the genes that normally provides use with grammar
critical period a time in childhood during which we can learn language more easily that at any other time
critical period after this these individuals are not able to combine ideas into sentences
bilingualism understanding and effiecently using two languages at once, even before the critical period is over
balanced bilinguals people who developed roughly equal mastery of two languages as a child
balanced bilinguals 2 are superior to other cognitive flexibility, concept formation, and creativity
Benjamin Whorf (1956) claimed that language actually determines how we can think
linguistic relativity theory Designed by Benjamin Whorf claimed that language actually determines how we can think
Created by: jksboom