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A&P Ch14 Respiratory

Respiratory System

Organs of the Respiratory system are designed to do what 2 things? Air distributors; Gas exchangers
The process of respiration is an important ______________ mechanism. Homeostatic
The respiratory system effectively does what 3 things to the air we breathe. Filters, Warms & Humidifies
The pharynx is subdivided into 3 sections, name them from the top down: (NOL) Nasopharynx; oropharynx, Laryngopharnyx
The exchanges of gases in the respiratory system is the passive transport process of _________. Diffusion
An insufficient oxygen supply to the tissues is termed? Hypoxia
Hypoxia is treated by administering oxygen to individuals suffering from this disorder. This is known as ___________ __________. Oxygen Therapy
The upper respiratory tract (outside of the chest cavity)is composed of what 3 organs? Nose, Pharynx, Larynx
The Lower Respiratory Tract consists of what? Trachea, All segments of the bronchial tree, and the lungs
What is the membrane that lines most of the air distribution tubes in the respiratory system? Respiratory Mucosa
What membrane separates the air in the alveoli from the blood in the surrounding capillaries? Respiratory Membrane
The most important air purification mechanism is? The layer of protective mucus.
How much respiratory mucus is produced daily? More than 125mL
Why do cigarette smokers develope a "smoker's cough"? Cigarette smoke paralyzes respiratory cilia resulting in an accumulation of mucus
Another name for the nostrils? External Nares
What separates the left and right nasal cavities? Nasal septum
Name the 4 paranasal sinuses: Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, & Maxillary
When the nasal mucosa is inflammed what condition is developed from colds? Sinusitis
Sinuses serve what 3 purposes? 1. Production of mucus 2. Help lessen the weight of the skull bones 3. resonant chambers for sound
The 3 shelf-like structures that protrude into the sinuses on both sides are called? Chonchae
What is the purpose of the chonchae? Increases the surface area for air passage to warm and humidify the air.
Why is administered supplemental oxygen bubbled through air? Because dry oxygen causes respiratory discomfort and irritation as it pulls more water from the mucosa.
What are the masses of lymphatic tissue embedded in the mucous membrane of the pharynx? Tonsils
What are the tonsils in the nasopharynx? Pharyngeal tonsils or Adenoids
What are the tonsils in the Oropharynx? Palantine Tonsils
What are the 2 functions of the pharynx? 1. Passageway for food and water 2. passageway for air
Name the 3 pairs of tonsils? Pharyngeal Tonsils; Palantine Tonsils; Lingual tonsils
The space between the vocal cords is called? Glottis
What is the purpose of the epiglottis? Prevents food and water from entering trachea
The epiglottis is made of what? Cartilage
The adam's apple is made of what? Thyroid Cartilage
The Larynx is composed of what? several pieces of cartilage
Another name for the trachea is what? Approximately how long is the trachea? Windpipe; 11cm (4.5 inches)
What keeps the trachea from collapsing? Approximately 15 to 20 C-Shaped rings of cartilage
What is the purpose of the trachea? Passageway for air and the "muco-ciliary" mechanism of the mucus and cilia to expel airborne contaminants
Name (in order) the sections from the trachea to the smallest respiratory part. Primary Bronchi, Secondary bronchi, bronchioles, Alveolar Ducts, Alveolar sacs, Alveoli
What promotes the rapid exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between blood circulating through the lung capillaries and alveolar air? Alveoli
What covers the surface of the respiratory membrane inside each alveolus? What is it's purpose? Surfactant; Reduce surface tension and prevent collapse
What are the 3 methods of effective gas exchange in the alveoli? 1)Single layer epithelium 2)Increased surface area(millions of aveoli) 3)Surfactant
In the respiratory system, the lining of the most of the organs are made of respiratory mucosa, when does it begin to be lined with just smooth muscle tissue? Bronchioles
What drains into the nasal cavities? The paranasal sinuses and the lacrimal sacs
What is the moist, slippery membrane lining the chest cavity and covers the surface of the lungs? Pleura
What is between the Parietal and Visceral Pleura and what is it for? Intrapleural space containing fluid to reduce friction
What is the term for inflammation of the pleura? Pleurisy
When there is air in the intrapleural space it is called? Pneumothorax
What do the lungs rest upon? Diaphragm
What are the 2 phases of pulmonary ventilation? Inspiration & Expiration
This term means the exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment. Respiration
___________ ____________ is the process that moves air into and out of the lungs. Pulmonary ventilation
The exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and in the blood is termed: External Respiration
The exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body is termed? Internal Respiration
During inspiration what is the diaphragm doing? Contracting and flattening
What muscles are involved in inspiration? Diaphragm and external intercostals
Forceful expiration involves what muscles? Internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
What type of process is inspiration? Active process
Quiet expiration is what type of process? Passive process
External or Internal? Carbaminohemoglobin breaks down into carbon dioxide and hemoglobin; Oxygen moves from the alveoli into lung capillaries External
External or Internal? Oxyhemoglobin breaks down into O2 & hemoglobin; Carbaminohemoglobin is formed Internal
Oxygen travels in what 2 forms? Dissolved O2 in plasma and as Oxyhemoglobin
If carbon dioxide accumulates beyond normal limits in the blood what can happen? It can become toxic (high levels of Hydrogen)
CO2 is transported in the blood in 3 different ways, what are they and which way carries the majority of CO2? 1)Dissolved CO2 (10%) 2)Carbaminohemoglobin (20%) 3)Bicarbonate Ions (70%)
When CO2 combines with water it forms what? Carbonic Acid
Dissociating carbonic acid forms what 2 products? Hydrogen & bicarbonate ions
Tidal volume (TV) is what? The amount of air during normal breathing
The greatest amount of air that be breathed out in one expiration: Vital Capacity
The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after tidal volume: Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
The amount of air that can be forcibly breathed in after tidal volume: Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Air that remains in the lungs after the most forceful expiration: Residual volume (RV)
Normal rate of respiration: 12 to 18 breaths per minute
What is the formula for Vital Capacity: VC = IRV + ERV + TV
The Respiratory Control Centers that regulate normal respiration are located where? Medulla and Pons of the brain
What are the 2 receptors that influence respiration? Chemoreceptors and Pulmonary Stretch Receptors
The Chemoreceptors are located where? Aortic and Carotid bodies
These respond to the stretch in the lungs, thus protecting respiratory organs from overinflating: Pulmonary Stretch Receptors
The voluntary control of respiration are located where? Cerebral Cortex
Normal breathing is termed? Eupnea
Rapid and deep respirations are termed? Hyperventilation
Slow and shallow breathing is termed? Hypoventilation
Labored or difficult respirations? Dyspnea
Respiration that has stopped is known as: Apnea
Failure to resume breathing after apnea is called? Respiratory Arrest
What 2 things open into the nasopharynx? Pharyngeal tonsils and Auditory (Eustachian)tubes
Created by: foster1317