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Cognition Ch 8


cognitive psychology The study of the mental proceeses by which information from the enviroment is modified, made meaningful, stored, retrieved, used, and communitcated to others
information-processing system mechanisims for recieving information, representing it with symblos, and manipulating it
thinking the manipulation of mental representation
5 core functions of thought describe, elaborate, decide, plan, guide action
describe when recieving information that will allow her to explain the problem
elaborate able to on this information by using her knowledge and experience to consider what the disorder may be
decide futher on discover the possible cause
plan written action on the decsion to futher
guide action futher expand the plan
reaction time the time between the presenation of the situmlus and an overt response to it
reaction time - 2 show scientist an idea of how long it takes for all the processes shown to occur
reaction time - 3 person is asked to create a noise or to push a button as rapidly as possible after a stimulus appears.
stimulus-responsive compatibility influences reaction time
mental chronometry the timing of mental events
expectancy affects reaction time
expectancy - 2 people respond faster to stimuli that they are expecting and more slow to stimuli that is suprised
evoked brain potential a small, temporary change in EEG voltage that is evoked by stimulus
evoked brain potential - 2 to analyze mental events more difficulty directly
concept a category of objects, events, or ideas that have common properties
have a concept is to recognize the properties or features that tend to be shared be members of the category
Concept examples the word "bird" includes such properties as having feathers, laying eggs, and being able to fly
formal concept a concept that can be clearly defined by a set of rules or properties
Formal concept example "square" can be defined as a "shape with four equal right angle corners"
natural concept a concept that has no fixed set or defining feature but has a set of characteristics
natural concept examples "home" can be defined as the place you were born in, the house in which you grew up in, your current residence, your country of origin, or the place where you feel most comfortable
nature concept - 2 concept is FUZZY; some members of it are better examples of the concept than others b/c they share more of its characteristic features.
prototype a member of a natural concept that possesses all or most of its characteristics features
prototype - 2 the more ___ a member of a concept is, the more quickly people can decide if it is an example of the concept
proposition a mental representation of the relationship between concepts
proposition - 2 can be true or false
proposition - 3 the combining of concepts into units
proposition examples hear your friend Heather broke up with her boyfriend Jason; Heather->dumped->Jason
Schema a generalization about categories of objects, places, events, and people
Schema - 2 help people understand the world
Schema - 3 generate expectations about objects, places, events, and people
Schema examples if you barrow a friends car, your "car" relation will give you a good idea of where to put the ignition key, where the brakes and accelerator are , how to raise and lower the windows
Schema examples 2 stereo systems have speakers, picnics occur in the summer, the rock concerts are loud
script a mental representation of familiar sequences of activity
script 2 shape the interpretation of events
mental model a cluster of propositions representing our understanding of objects and processes that guides our interaction with those things
mental model 2 accurate, mental models are excellent guides for thinking about, and interacting with, many if the things we encounter
mental model 3 inaccurate, we are likely to make mistakes
image a mental representation of visual information
image 2 'analogical representation due to we manipulating the objects in a way that is similar or analogous to objects manipulating themselves
cognitive map a mental representation of familiar parts of the enviroment
reasoning the process by which people generate and evaluate arguments and reach conclusions about them
formal reasoning the process of following a set of rigorous procedures for reaching valid conclusions
formal reasoning 2 known as logical reasoning
algorithm a systematic procedure that cannot fail to produce a correct solution to a problem, if the solution exists
rules of logic set of statements that provide a formula for drawing valid conclusions
rules of logic 2 traceable ot the Greek philosopher Aristotle, have evolved into a a system for drawing correct conclusions from a set of statements
syllogism an argument made up of two propositions, called premises, and a conclusion based on those premises
conformation bias the tendency to pay more attention to evidence in support of ones hypothesis than ti evidence that refutes that hypothesis
conformation bias 2 can affect thinking in many situations
conformation bias examples people first fall in love, they notice all the good qualities in your loved ones and ignore the less desirable ones
information reasoning the process of evaluating a conclusion, theory, or course of action on the basis of the believablitiy of evidence
information reasoning 2 known as inductive reasoning because the goal is to induce a general conclusion to appear on the basis of specific facts or examples
heuristics time saving mental shortcuts used in reasoning
heuristics 2 opposing of algorthms; rule of thumb; prevent coming up with better situations
heuristic examples Keys are lost - go where you would have most likely left it
anchoring heuristics bias; form basic ideas that we form from schemas; have an anchor for in the future
anchoring heuristic a mental short-cut that involves basing judgement on existing information
representativeness heuristic a mental shortcut that involves judging whether something belongs in a given class on the basis of its similarity to other members of that class
representativeness heuristic very difficult to change first impressions or past social schemas; problamatic
representativeness heurist example catholic church wont allow women to become priest or male priest to be married
availbiity hueristic based on vividness; works well
avaibility heuristic 2 a mental shortcut through which judgements are based on info that is easily brought to mind
avaibility heuristics 3 lead to biased judgement, especially when mental avaibility does not reflect actual frequency
means-end analysis most general of the strategies for problem solving
means-end analysis 2 involves continuously ask where you are in relation to your final goal, and then deciding on the means by which you get one step closer to it
decomposition rather than trying to solve the problem all at once, you idenitify a subgoal that will take you towards a solution
means-end and decomp examples the task of writing a major paper; might seem overwhelming at first, but the first goal is to write an outline
work backwards starting at end of goal/backwards from the goal
work backwards 2 not to miss important details
work backwards examples Mount Everest: researching the last stage of the hike, then work backwards from that point; oxygen, miles before stoping, supplies
analogy similarities between todays problems and others you have encountered before
analogy example an office manager may find taht a seemingly hopeless problem employees can be resolved using the same compromise that worked during a recent family scramble
analogy 2 must first recognize the similarities between current and previous problems and then recall the solution that worked before
mental set the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist, even when they might not always be the most efficient alternative
function fixedness a tendency to think about familiar objects in familiar ways that may prevent using them in other ways
artifical intelligence (AI) The field that studies how to program computers to imitate the products of human perception, understanding, and thought
artifical intelligence examples computerizing expert systems can already perform as well as humans, and sometimes better
utility a subjective measure of value
utility examples in deciding on a major you have to think about the positive or negative utilities of each attritibute -such as the job prospectd and interest- of each major
expected value the total benefits to be expected if a decision were to be repeated several times
expected value 2 looking at the olds of buying a raffle ticket and actually winning the money
probablitities can lead to less-than-optimal decisions
loss aversion people usually feel worse about losing a certain amount than they feel good about gaining the same amount
loss aversion examples people willing to exert more effort to try to collect a $100 debt, than try to win a $100 prize
probablities comes to play when making a decison about extremely likely or extremely unlikely
gamblers fallacy people believe that future events in a random process will be chnaged by past events
gamblers fallacy example after a losing streak on the slot machine, the machine will hit
naturalistic decision making an alternative approach is used when experts must find solutions to complex problems
naturalistic decision making example working in organizational teams and facing limitations time and resources
naturalistic decision making 2 involves the use of prior experiences to develop mental representation of how organiztional systems really work
situation awareness percieved parallels between current and past experiences
situation awareness 2 that they are able to appreciate all elements of a problem, as well as all elements of the enviroment within which it appears
situation awareness 3 to make decisions that take them all into account
Created by: jksboom