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MGMT Test 2

QuestionAnswer
the process by which the individual selects, organizes, interprets and responds to information perception
Key words that define perception select and organize
Objects in the person's environment, observation, perceptual selection, perceptual organization, interpretation, response perceptual process
the belief that space needs to be in harmony with the environment feng shui
wind and water feng shui
the process by which people filter out most information so that they can deal with the most important matters selective screening
Size, intensity, contrast, motion, repetition, novelty and familiarity external factors
personality, learning, motivation internal factors
an expectation of a particular interpretation based on the person's past experience with the same or a similar object perceptual set
states that people process pleasant events more efficiently and accurately than they do unpleasant events. pollyanna principle
the process by which the individual attributes characteristics or traits to other people person perception
facial expressions, general appearance, skin color, posture, age, gender, voice quality, personality traits, behaviors, etc. cues
a person's beliefs about the relationships between another's physical characteristics and personality implicit personality theory
employees who live and work outside of their home country expatriates
lowered security and safety, lower quality of life, job doesn't meet expectations, inability to adapt to new situation, family concerns, spouse/partner dissatisfaction reasons for expatriate failure
Interviewers tend to be positively predisposed toward job candidates who are similar to them similarity error
Interviewers have a tendency to compare job candidates to other candidates contrast error
interviewers tend to overreact to negative information overweighting of negative information
the tendency for people to protect themselves against ideas, objects or situations that are threatening perceptual defense
the belief that all members of a specific group share similar traits and behaviors stereotyping
occurs when one positive or negative characteristic dominates the way that person is viewed by others halo effect
the tendency for someone's expectations about another to cause that individual to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations self-fulfilling prophecy
holding high expectations of another tends to improve the individual's performance pygmalion effect
to the loss in performance that results from low expectations by the manager golem effect
the tendency for individuals to see their own traits in other people projection
an attempt by an individual to manipulate or control the impressions that others form about them impression management
self-promotion, ingratiation, intimidation, supplication, exemplification impression management tactics
the ways in which people come to understand the causes of their own and others' behaviors attribution process
the tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of personal factors in evaluating someone else's behavior fundamental attribution error
ability, effort, task difficulty, luck success or failure causal factors
individuals attributing their success to internal factors and attributing their failure to external factors self-serving bias
a relatively permanent change in knowledge or observable behavior that results from practice or experience learning
the process by which individuals learn to link the information from a neutral stimulus to a stimulus that causes a response classical conditioning
a process by which individuals learn voluntary behavior. operant conditioning
In operant conditioning, a response is learned because it leads to a particular ___________ consequence
the relationship between a behavior and the preceding and following envionmental events that influence that behavior contingency of reinforcement
instructions, rules, goals, and advice from others that help individuals to know which behaviors are acceptable antecedent
the result of behavior consequence
a behavioral contingency that increases the frequency of a particular behavior that it follows reinforcement
entails presenting a pleasant consequence after the occurrence of a desired behavior positive reinforcement
an event that an individual finds desirable or pleasing reward
an event for which the individual already knows the value primary reinforcer
an event that once had neutral value but has taken on some value for an individual because of past experience. second reinforcer
the reinforcer must be administered only if the desired behavior is performed principle of contingent reinforcement
the reinforcer will be most effective if administered immediately after the desired behavior has occurred principle of immediate reinforcement
the larger amount of reinforcer delivered after the desired behavior, the more effect the reinforcer will have on the frequency of the desired behavior principle of reinforcement size
the more an individual is deprived of the reinforcer; the greater effect it will have on the future occurrence of the desired behavior principle of reinforcement deprivation
a suggestion that results in safety, cost, or quality improvements kaizen
an unpleasant event that precedes the employee behavior is removed when the desired behavior occurs. negative reinforcement
an unpleasant event that occurs until an employee performs a behavior or terminates it escape learning
the removal of all reinforcing events extinction
an unpleasant event occurring following a behavior and decreasing that behavior's frequency punishment
the behavior is reinforced each time it occurs and is the simplest of reinforcement continuous reinforcement
a reinforcer being delivered after some, but not every, occurrence of the desired behavior intermittent reinforcement
a constant amount of time must pass before a reinforcer is provided fixed interval schedule
changes in the amount of time between reinforcers variable interval schedule
the desired behavior must occur a specified number of times before it is reinforced fixed ratio schedule
a certain number of desired behaviors must occur before the reinforcer is delivered, but the number of behaviors varies around some average variable ratio schedule
knowledge acquisition through the mental processing of information by observing and imitating others. social learning theory
symbolizing, forethought, vicarious learning, self control, self efficacy social learning theory dimensions
the process of creating a mental image to guide an individual's behavior symbolizing
the individual planning his or her actions based on the level of performance he or she desires forethought
the individual observing the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior vicarious learning
the individual selecting his or her own goals and ways of reaching them to learn new behaviors self control
giving employees the authority, skills, and self control to perform their tasks empowerment
the individual's estimate of his or her own ability to perform a specific task in a particular situation self efficacy
the forces acting on or within a person that cause the person to behave in a specific, goal directed manner. motivation
=f(ability * motivation) performance
the person's natural talent, as well as learned competencies, for performing goal-related tasks ability
deficiencies that a person experiences at a particular time needs
self-actualization, esteem, affiliation, security, physiological needs hierarchy model
desire for food, water, air and shelter physiological needs
desire for safety, stability, and the absence of pain security needs
desire for friendship, love, and a feeling of belonging affiliation needs
desires for feelings of achievement, self worth, and recognition or respect esteem needs
individuals realizing their full potential and becoming all that they can become self actualization needs
physiological, security, and affiliation deficiency needs
esteem and self actualization growth needs
the desire to be liked and to stay on good terms with others need for affiliation
individuals are motivated according to the strength of their desire either to perform in terms of a standard of excellence or to succeed in competitive situations achievement motivation model
unstructured pictures that may arouse many kinds of reactions in the person being tested thematic apperception test
proposes that two sets of factors are the primary causes of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction motivator-hygiene model
work, recognition, advancement, responsibility motivator factors
factors related to the job and are largely internal to the individual intrinsic factors
company policy and administration, technical supervision, salary, fringe benefits, working conditions, job security, and interpersonal relations hygiene factors
involves increasing the amounts of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback in a job job characteristics model
skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, job feedback five job characteristics
the extent to which an individual desire the opportunity for self direction, learning, and personal accomplishment at work growth need strength
cultural values, organizational policies, administration, technical supervision, salary and benefit programs, etc contextual factors
the delegation to employees of responsibilities and tasks that were formerly reserved for management or staff specialists. vertical loading
states that individuals are motivated to work when they believe that they can achieve things they want from their jobs. expectancy model
results of behaviors associated with doing the job itself first level outcomes
the rewards that first level outcomes are likely to produce. second level outcomes
the belief that a particular level of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance expectancy
the relationship between first level outcomes and second level outcomes instrumentality
self confidence, self esteem, personal happiness, overall GPA, approval of other individuals, respect six desirable second-level outcomes
which countries control their work environment and their own behavior US, Canada, UK
Countries who dont have control over their work environments Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Japan, China
focuses on an individual's feelings of how fairly she is treated in comparison with others equity model
what an individual contributes to an exchange inputs
what an individual receives from the exchange outcomes
causes tension within and among individual inequity
the perceived fairness of the rules, guidelines, and processes for making decisions procedural justice
exceeds formal job duties and is often necessary for the organization's survival, including its image and acceptance organizational citizenship behavior
Created by: 1024710193