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Counseling Terms

Various terms associated with counseling & helping professions

Abnormal behavior maladaptive behavior that interferes with optimal functioning and growth of the individual and, ultimately society
abuse mistreatment of one human being by another, as in child abuse or spouse abuse, or misuse of a substance, as in alcohol or drug abuse
accreditation a professional credential applicable to programs deemed to have met certaian established qualifications or standards
achievement test an appraisal instrument designed to measure formal (i.e school) learning
ageism discrimination or negative attitude toward persons based on the fact that they are elderly
androgyny characteristic of a human being incorporataing both masculine anad feminine attributes in oone personality
aptitude battery a set of appraisals deisigned to predict achievement prior to instruction or selection
attending a particular type of behavior displayed by a counselor towoard a client thata includes appropriate eye contact, body & verbal language, following free from value judgments & distractions
attitude test an appraisal instrument that measures the tendency to respond favorably or unfavorably toward specific groups, institutions, or objects
behavioral view a theory of helping that focuses on observable and measurable behaviors and precise goals set by the clients, sees clients as products of their environments, and seeks to change environmental contingencies in order to change client behavior
career guidance a type of vocational educatioon that normally occurs in sschool settings & coonsists of an organized program to promote selfl-understanding, understanding of work and society changes, leisure awareness, aand avenues for self-fulfillment
career counseling a type of individual, adult counseling that focuses on career development needs by promoting the self-discovery & decision-making skills needed to make effective career & life-style choices
career develoment a life-span process that involves searching for the psychological meaning of vocationally relevant acts & of work itself
certification a title control process by which an agency grants recognition to an individual who has fulfilled the standards ofo the agenc, thereby earning too right to use the title "certified"
classical conditioning a model of learning that involves the conditioning of new stimuli to existing responses
client-centered a theory of helping that emphasizes the process of being, rather than the outcome, with the counselor facilitating in the process of helping clients find their own direction
cognitive therapy a theory of helping that assists clients in identifying automatic, illogical, and irrational thouoghts and generating more adaptive alternative thoughts that lead to more satisfying behaviors
cohesiveness an aaspepct of groupp dynamics that refers to the attractiveness of the counseling group for its members
confidentiality the ethical responsibility of the counselor to safeguarad clients from unauthorized disclosure of information about themselves
consultation a helping relationship involving collaboratioon between two professionals, the consultant and the consultee, focusing ono issues that cause human problems in the consultee's workplace
counselor helper who's trained to work w/normal populations to prevent problems or to remedy them @ their early stages, taking a developmental, educational approach in order to assist clients in achieving more effective personal, social, educational, & career devel
culture way of life of a people, the sum total of their beliefs aboouot & procedures for cooping w/their environment.
cross-cultural counseling takes into account cultural, social class, racial, & ethnic differences between counselor & client
data, people, and things part of classificatioon system in the DOT based on interest requirements. Jobs are classified on a continuum fromo low to high interest in ideas & information (data), interpersonal relations (people) & physical objects (things)
disabled physically, mentally, or emotionally handicapped
discrimination the act of treating people differently because of their age, sex, race, or culture
DOT Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a publicatioon of the U.S. Dept. of Labor that contains an alphabetically arranged list of occupatioonal titles & their descriptions
empathy a counselor skill that involves reflecting the client's feelings in such a way as to demonstrate understanding of the client by the counselor
ethics a set of standards of right or wrong that have been established by a profession
evaluation a judgment of the worth or value of a particular process, technique, or program
experimental design conceputal framework within which a research project is conducted, a research plan that serves to establish the conditions for the comparisons required by the hypotheses of the experiment & enable experimenter to make meaningful interpretation of results
external validity generalizability or representativeness of the findingss of a research project; that is, the extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized to different subjects, settings, aand measuring instruments
feedback the verbalization ofo an individual's perceptionoss and reactions to another's verbal or nonverbal behavior
genuineness a counselor response that demonstrates the ability to be real or honest with clients; counselor verbalizations are congruent with inner feelings
group dynamics the area of social psychology that focuses on advancing knowledge about the nature of groupp life;; social forces & interplay operative within the group at any time
group process the study of how groups work; the continuous, ongoing movement of the group toward the achievement of its goals
group roles members' functions within the group; task & maintenace roles help group move toward goals, while personal/individual roles detract from group when self-orientation is at odds with the group
informed consent (group) an ethical standard that requires (group) leaders to identify clearly for members the nature & goals of the group & responsibilities & rights of the members
intelligence test an appraisal instrument designed to measure IQ
interest inventory a series of items having no correct answers, designed to indicate preference for one activity over another
internal validity criteria for evaluating the soundness of causal relationships in a research study, that is, for determining whether or not the independent variable made a difference
intervention a facilitative response by the counselor to the client
licensure process by which an agency of gvt grants permission to an individual to engage in a given occupation upon fiding that the applicant has attained minimal degree of competence necessary to ensure public health, safety, & welfare will be reasonably protected
life-career rainbow a career development tool that depicts the life span in terms of six life roles & five life stages
life-style an individual's total waay of being in the world, including aspects of work, home/family, & leisure life
malpractice the failure to render proper service, through ignorance or negligence, resulting in injury or loss to the client; departing from usual practice or not exercising due care
maturation the process of growth and development
mean a measure of central tendency sometimes referred to as the arithmetic average; found by summing all values and dividing by the number of cases
median the midpoint of a series sof measurements after all values have been placed in sequence
norms (in group counseling) standard rules of conduct in the group, formal or informal, visible or invisible, spoken or unspoken
norms (in appraisal) the distribution of scores obtained frmo a standard group (i.e. representatives of specified populations)
OOH Occupational Outlook Handbook, a resource guide published by the U.S. Dept. of Labor that contains career information for use in guidance
operant conditioning type of learning in which the individual actively operates or acts on the environment in order to achieve some goal
prejudice an irrational attitude or behavioro directed against an individual or a grooup, or their supposed characteristics
prevention counselor activites aimed at reducing incidence & severity of problems.
Primary prevention aimed at total populations to promote the development of healthy behaviors through information & education
Secondary prevention (early intervention) aimed at high-risk groups or persons in the early stages of a problem & focuses on reducing the duration and/or intensity of the disorder
Tertiary prevention (rehabilitation or treatment) designed to facilitate a full, effective return to the highest possible level of functioning
privilleged communication a legal concept that means clients are protected by state law from having their confidences revealed in a court of law without their permission
professional orientation attitude adopted by professional counselors toward their counseling & related professional activities that includes voluntarilly adhering to, supporting and contributing to the achievement & improvement of the goals, objectives, & behaviors deemed appropr
qualitative data measurement based upon ordinal scores (unequall differences btw successive categories of the trait beingg measured) or nominal scales (derived from mutuallly excllusive categories w/o regard to order)
quantitative data measurement based upon ratio scales that have equal intervalls and an absolute zero
reflection a counselor response that restates the client's statement, communicatingg its content and affect with accuracy and equal intensity
registry publlicllly distributed llist of names of persons who have met some identified set of minimum qualifications
reinforcement consequence of a behavior that increases the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring, in positive reinforcement stimuli ar presented; in negative reinforcement, stimuli are removed
reliability extent to which individual differences are measured consistentlly as determined by coefficients of stabillity, equivalence, and internall consistency or homogeneity
research organized scientific efforts that seek the advancement of knowledge
respect a counselor response that demonstrates to clients that the counselor has faith in their abillity to solvle their own problems
roles functions assumed by individuals based on their place in a familly (familllly roles), their longevity (age roles), or their gender (sex roles).
Role conflict/rolle strain Resullt of too many different functions; roles.
Rolle integration successful balance of roles
sampling selectingg a representative portion of a population to participate in a research study
self-actualization the inherent tendency of the organism to develop alll its capacities in ways that serve to maintain or enhance the organism
sexism discrimination against persons because of their gender
stages periods of growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline in development and their relationship to chronological age
Standards of Counselor Preparation a set of guidelines established by ACES to which counselor trainingg programs must adhere in order to be accredited by CACREP
statistics a science concerned with the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data obtained from samples of observations
stereotyping making a judgment about a person or a group based upon a preconceived notion rather than fact
trait theory way of classifying individualls according to a series of personality constructs, or traits, that can be used to predict behavior under given circumstances
trait-and-factor theory a matching approach to career development that assumes that success in a chosen field may be achieved by matching an individual's personal characteristics w/the characteristics required for a particular occupation
unconditional positive regard a counselor's nonpossessive caring or acceptance of the individuallity of each client
validity extent to which measurements or items correspond with criteria
variable an attribute that is regarded as reflectinggg or expressing some concept or construct and that takes on different variables.
dependent variables those that are consequences of antecedent variables and that are the object of research studies
independent variables are antecendent variables that are manipulated in research studies to determine their effect on the dependent variables
vicarious conditioningg learningg that takes place through observation of the behavior of others (i.e. models)
Created by: orangeer