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HOS Test 1

QuestionAnswer
the standard model of science data, evidence, observation, determines theory
Falsification A genuinely scientific theory makes predictions that can be tested and show to be true or false (Karl Popper)
Scientific realism Things that science posits (even if you can’t see, touch, or taste) really do exist. Scientists can determine that they exist through measurement and experimentation.
Scientific anti-realism Is the scientific theory an account of what really is there? Or are these things “convenient fictions”?
Scientific paradigm (and scientific revolutions) Set of beliefs, assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitute a way of viewing reality for the community that shares them, especially in an intellectual discipline. (Revolutionary Science: data that will not fit existing paradigm increase
Atomism (Democritus) purely mechanical, materialist explanation-no logic, design, end, or purpose; world is a result of processes that are at once random and inescapable (necessary); deterministic view, consciousness dependent on atoms.
Four Elements fire, air, earth, water (Empedocles)
Plato’s theory of Forms ideas
Allegory of the Cave Plato-The prisoners in a cave are forced to watch shadows on the wall; where we are the prisoners and every material object in our world is a projection of the object’s form or ideal state.
Telos : Plato-“end” or “purpose”; All objects in the world are informed and shaped by the purpose they serve
Aristotle’s Cosmology something cannot come from nothing; the universe is eternal (no beginning or end); filled with matter; 2 domains: terrestrial-change, mixture, growth, birth, death; celestial-changeless, prefect, eternal (moon is intermediate).
The Prime Mover Eternal and incorporeal, pure and perfect mind; not the creator of the universe; motion of spheres explained by their desire to approach perfection; final cause, the theological aspiration of the spheres.
Retrograde motion (Ptolemy) planet orbits travel backwards in their motion
Epicurean Philosophy There are gods but earth and all life forms came into being without their aid or sponsorship; Gods have no knowledge or interest in human affairs; Hedonism-pursuit of pleasure, avoidance of pain; better to abstain from coarse or trivial pleasures if they
Four Humors (Galen) Blood-source of life and energy; Phlegm-cools the body when required; Yellow Bile-required for digestion; Black Bile-darkens blood and other secretions from the body
Aquinas’ Medieval Synthesis Greek natural philosophy/science merged with Christian faith, science and divine revelation in accord; unitary truth, a world and universe at once rationally ordered and divinely planned
Ockham ’s razor Of competing hypothesis that sufficiently explain the data, select the one that makes the fewest assumptions.
Nominalism Universal-characteristics or qualities shared by a number of specific objects or particulars or individuals, universals are abstract and general, particulars are concrete.
The Great Chain of Being organisms are classified based on complexity
Cartesian Dualism : The body is material, operates as a machine, with the properties of extension and motion, ultimately explicable in terms of physics. Mind (soul) is nonmaterial, has no extension or motion, and cannot be explained by the laws of physics.
Clockwork Universe Universe is essentially a clock set in motion by the clock maker (god)
Empiricism knowledge arises only or primarily through sense experience; role of experience and evidence, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions.
Reductionism Explanation of phenomenon involves reduction to component parts
Materialism Living bodies operate as mechanisms
Mechanism The operation of a mechanism is wholly explicable in terms of component parts. The parts precede the whole and can exist independently
Idols of the Mind tribe-errors based on human error, cave-personality errors, market place-errors from common knowledge, theater-mistaken methods.
Newtonian law At work universally, on the earth and in the heavens, describes the movement of very small and very large objects
Karl Popper No number of positive experimental outcomes can ever fully confirm a scientific theory,
Karl Popper Scientific theories are inherently hypothetical, the result of creative imagination
Karl Popper No scientific theory is ever absolutely proven
Thomas Kuhn Science does not progress via a linear accumulation of new knowledge, but undergoes periodic revolutions, also called "paradigm shifts.”
Thomas Kuhn Set of beliefs, assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitute a way of viewing reality for the community that shares them, especially in an intellectual discipline.
Thomas Kuhn Ignore anomalies that can’t be made to fit
Thales of Miletus There is a single underlying, fundamental substance of the universe
Thales of Miletus This basic matter persists even as its qualities change
Thales of Miletus Objects in motion must be animated by immaterial forces.
Empedocles Four elements or “roots”: fire, air, earth, water
Empedocles First hypothesis about universal non-material principles that govern the material world
Empedocles First claim that there exist describable forces that govern the universe
Democritus Came up with Atomism
Democritus Particles themselves are indestructible and eternal
Democritus Random movement in an infinite void
Pythagoreans All material objects derive their properties from mathematical principles
Pythagoreans Mathematics works at describing the world because the world is essentially and fundamentally mathematical
Pythagoreans the principles, and they are not material, but mathematical
Plato Came up with Theory of Forms
Plato Not the material world of objects, imperfect, variable, impermanent
Plato Different things can all be beautiful to (most all) of us because there is a concept of beauty we all have
Aristotle Forms do not exist independently; they only exist in objects and belong to the object
Aristotle All objects are composed of two things: matter (the basic underlying stuff) and forms (all the properties of that matter—shape, color, density, hardness, weight, etc.).
Aristotle Every activity has a final cause, the good at which it aims
Ptolemy Spherical movement of the heavens
Ptolemy Generally spherical shape of the earth
Ptolemy Earth has ratio to sphere of fixed stars as single point to a sphere
Lucretius The permanent constituents of the universe: atoms and void
Lucretius Motion caused, but in itself unpredictable—> no determinism—>free will
Lucretius Infinite universe, infinitely extended space, an infinite number of atoms.
Ibn Sina/Avicenna His aim was to prove the existence of God and His creation of the world scientifically and through reason and logic.
Ibn Sina/Avicenna Most famous physician, philosopher, encyclopaedist, mathematician and astronomer of his time.
Ibn Sina/Avicenna Knowledge is attained by empirical processes and experience
Created by: erodgers12
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