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CHAPTER 1 - Introduction

development the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span
original sin view advocated during the Middle Ages, the belief that children were born into the world as evil beings and were basically bad
tabula rasa view the idea, proposed by John Locke, that children are like a “blank tablet”
innate goodness view the idea, presented by Swiss-born philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, that children are inherently good
genetic epistemology the study of how children’s knowledge changes over the course of their development
culture the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation
ethnicity a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language
ethnic identity a sense of membership in an ethnic group, based on shared language, religion, customs, values, history, and race
socioeconomic status (SES) refers to the grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
biological processes changes in an individual’s body
gender the psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being male or female
social policy a government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
cognitive processes changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language
socioemotional processes changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and personality
prenatal period the time from conception to birth
infancy the developmental period that extends from birth to about 18 to 24 months
early childhood the developmental period that extends from the end of infancy to about 5 to 6 years of age, sometimes called the preschool years
middle and late childhood the developmental period that extends from about 6 to 11 years of age, sometimes called the elementary school years
adolescence the developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood, entered at approximately 10 to 12 years of age and ending at 18 to 22 years of age
nature-nurture issue Nature refers to an organism’s biological inheritance, nurture to environmental influences. The “nature” proponents claim biological inheritance is the most important influence on development; the “nurture” proponents claim that environmental experiences
coninuity-discontinuity issue the issue regarding the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)
early-later experience issue the issue of the degree to which early experiences (especially infancy) or later experiences are the key determinants of the child’s development
Created by: Jessica C