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5010 Mid Gestalt

5010 Midterm - Gestalt Therapy Concepts

Paradoxical theory of change we change when we become aware of what we are as opposed to trying to become what we are not
Figure-Formation process Describes how the individual organizes experience from moment to moment
Figure-Formation process Tracks how some aspect of the environmental field emerges from the background and becomes focal point of the individual’s attention and interest
Figure-Formation process the dominant needs of an individual at a given moment influence the process
Organismic self-regulation Equilibrium is disturbed by the emergence of a need, a sensation, or an interest
Organismic self-regulation Intertwined with the figure-formation process
Organismic self-regulation What emerges in therapeutic work is associated with what is of interest to or what the client needs to be able to regain a sense of equilibrium
Field theory Grounded on the principle that an organism must be seen in its environment, or in context, as part of the constantly changing field
Field theory Everything is relational, in flux, interrelated, and in process
Holism according to a client's thoughts, feelings, behaviors, body, and dreams
Holism therapists place no superior value on a particular aspect of the individual
Holism Emphasis may be placed on a figure or foreground or the ground or background
Holism “attending to the obvious”, rather than attending primarily to verbal content
Holism constantly scans for postures, gestures, mannerisms, tiny facial twitches, sudden changes in tone of voice, and other cues that often tell far more about how a client is responding emotionally than the verbal statements do
figure those aspects of the individual’s experience that are most salient at any moment
ground those aspects of the client’s presentation that are often out of his or her awareness
Unfinished Business Can be manifest in unexpressed feelings such as resentment, rage, hatred, pain, anxiety, grief, guilt, and abandonment
Unfinished Business feelings linger in the background and are carried into present life in ways that interfere with effective contact with oneself and others
Unfinished Business effects usually show up in some blockage within the body in the form of some physical sensations or problems
Unfinished Business the impasse, or stuck point, is the time when external support in not available or the customary way of being does not work
Unfinished Business therapist’s task is to help clients experience the impasse without rescuing or frustrating them
Exaggeration Exercise Person is asked to exaggerate the movement or gesture they normally do repeatedly which usually intensifies the feeling attached to the behavior and makes inner feelings more clear
Staying with the Feeling Client is asked to stay with their feelings, maybe even go deeper, when they are wanting to avoid it
Making the Rounds Group exercise in which one person goes up to others and either speak or do something with each person
Making the Rounds Purpose is to confront, to risk, to disclose to self, to experiment with new behavior
Reversal Exercise Playing the role of the opposite personality.
Reversal Exercise Purpose is to have client take the plunge into the very thing that is fraught with anxiety and make contact with those parts of themselves that have been submerged and denied
Rehearsal Exercise Clients share their internal rehearsals out loud to become more aware of the many preparatory means they use in bolstering their social roles, of how they try to meet the expectations of others, or of the degree to which they want to be accepted and liked
Internal Dialogue Exercise Top dog (tyrannical) and underdog (obedient victim) are engaged in constant struggle for control which is rooted in introjections
Empty chair technique Internal dialogue exercise where person sits in top dog chair then moves to underdog chair in role playing activity
Internal Dialogue Exercise Goal is to promote higher level of integration between polarities and conflicts within a person – not get rid of these traits, but to accept and live with them
Dream Work No interpretation or analysis; but each part of the dream is assumed to be a projection of the self and the client creates scripts for each part
Dream Work Bring dreams back to life to relive them as though they are happening now
Dream Work Represent unfinished situations and existential messages regarding oneself and one’s current struggle
Experiments flow directly from psychotherapy theory and is crafted to fit the individual as he/she exists in the here and now
Experiments They are spontaneous, one of a kind, and relevant to a particular moment
Continuum of experience, The here and now, The paradoxical theory of change, The experiment, The authentic encounter, and Process-oriented diagnosis methodological components integral to Gestalt theory
Introjection, projection, retroflection, deflection, and confluece Five different kinds of contact boundary disturbances
Introjection Tendency to uncritically accept other’s beliefs and standards without assimilating them to make them congruent with who we are
Introjection Passively incorporating what the environment provides rather than clearly identifying what we want or need
Projection Reverse of introjections
Projection Disown certain aspects of ourselves that are inconsistent with our self-image by assigning them to the environment such as blaming others for our problems
Projection We avoid taking responsibility for our own feelings and who we when we see qualities in others that we refuse to acknowledge in ourselves
Projection tend to feel that they are victims of circumstances and that others have hidden meanings behind what they say
Retroflection Turning back onto ourselves what we would like to do to someone else or what we would like someone else to do to or for us
Retroflection Usually involves a fair amount of anxiety
Retroflection Tend to inhibit themselves from taking action out of fear of embarrassment, guilt, and resentment
Retroflection this usually results ins Depression and psychosomatic complaints
Retroflection People who self-mutilate or injure themselves are often directing aggression inward out of fear of directing towards others
Retroflection Maladaptive styles of functioning are adopted outside of our awareness
Deflection Distraction or veering off, so that is it difficult to maintain a sustained sense of contact
Deflection Examples include overuse of humor, abstract generalizations, or questions rather than statements
Deflection When we deflect we speak for others, beating around the bush rather than being direct and engaging the environment in an inconsistent and inconsequential basis, which results in emotional depletion
Confluence Blurring the differentiation between the self and the environment
Confluence No clear demarcation between internal experience and outer reality
Confluence in relationships involves the absence of conflicts, slowness to anger, and a belief that all parties experience the same feelings and thoughts that we do
Confluence these clients tend to have a high need to be liked and are comfortable with enmeshment which makes genuine contact extremely difficult
Fritz and Laura Perls (founders), Miriam and Erving Polster Individuals that provided major contribution to Gestalt
Fritz Perls Focused on intrapsychic phenomena and awareness
Laura Perls Paid great deal of attention to contact and support
The Now Appreciate and fully experience the present moment
The Now Power of the present diminishes when focusing on the past and/or the future
The Now Phenomenological inquiry
“It” talk using depersonalizing language
“You” talk global and impersonal language tends to keep the person hidden
Questions tend to keep the person hidden, safe, and unknown
Language that denies power adding qualifiers or disclaimers to their statements making their statements ambivalent such as maybe, perhaps, sort of, I guess, possibly, I suppose
Blocks to Energy Manifested by tension in some part of the body, by posture, by keeping one’s body tight and closed, by not breathing deeply, by looking away from people when speaking to avoid contact, numbing feelings, etc.
Block to Energy Therapist helps clients identify the ways this is occurring and transform it into more adaptive behaviors
Discover, Accommodation, and Assimilation Polster’s three stage integration sequence characterizing client growth in therapy
Accommodation clients recognizing that they have a choice, begin by trying out new behaviors in therapy then outside
Assimilation client learning how to influence their environment such as taking a stand on critical issues
“Interruption in contact” or “boundary disturbance” the characteristic style people employ in their attempts to control their environment through one of these channels of resistance
Resistances developed as a coping mechanism and possess positive and negative qualities; chronic resistance can lead to dysfunctional behavior
Resistances Coping processes that prevents one from experiencing the present include interruptions, disturbances, and resistances to contact
Contact necessary for change and growth and is made by seeing, hearing, smelling, touching, and moving
Effective contact involves interacting with nature and with others without losing one’s sense of individuality
Good contact involves clear awareness, full energy, and the ability to express oneself
withdrawal necessary after contact to integrate what has been learned is also necessary for healthy functioning
Awareness includes the ability to make contact with their field (a dynamic system of interrelationships) and the people in it
Moving client from environmental support to self-support and Reintegrating the disowned parts of one’s personality Two of Fritz's personal agendas
Created by: CatMarWar