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A&P Ch 15 Digestion

Digestive System

Irregular tube open at both ends Digestive system
2 other terms used for the Digestive system Alimentary Canal ; Gastrointestinal Tract
2 Types of Digestion Mechanical & Chemical
3 processes of food 1. Digestion; 2. Absorbtion; 3. Metabolism
Main Organs (8) MPESIRA Mouth; Pharynx; Esophagus; Stomach; Small Intestines; Large Intestines; Rectum; Anal Canal
Accessory Organs (7) TTSLGPA Teeth, Tongue, Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Appendix
Hollow space in the digestive tube is known as ____________ Lumen
4 Tissue Layers of the Digestive Tube 1. Mucosa; 2. Submucosa; 3. Muscularis; 4. Serosa
Blood vessels and nerves are in this layer ____ Submucosa
Covers the outside of organs (Serosa layer) Visceral Peritoneum
Double fold of peritoneal tissue that anchors the loops of the digestive tract to the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity Mesentary
Food material is moved through the digestive tube by this motion _____________ Peristalsis
What layer is responsible for peristalsis? Muscularis
The serosa layer of the digestive tube in the abdominal cavity is composed of _____________ Visceral peritoneum
The large double fold of peritoneal tissue that anchors the digestive tract to the posterior abdominal cavity is called _____________ Mesentary
The hollow chamber with a roof, floor and walls Mouth or oral cavity
Roof of the mouth is composed of what? Hard & soft palate
This is the arch shaped muscle that separates the mouth from the pharynx Soft Palate
The part of the mouth made of parts of the maxillary & palantine bones Hard Palate
This prevents food and liquid from entering the nasal cavity Uvula
Fold of the mucous membrane that helps to anchor the tongue is called what? Lingual Frenulum
Someone referred to as "Tongue Tied" has this abnormality? Short lingual frenulum
Small elevations on the mucosa of the tongue Papillae
4 Types of Teeth Incisors, canines (cuspids), premolars (bicuspids), molars (Tricuspids)
3 parts of the teeth crown, neck, root
How many teeth are in the adult mouth 32
How many teeth in the temporary set 20
Enamel covers this part of the crown Dentin
The cementum covers this part of the teeth Neck and roots
At the neck, the cementum is covered by what kind of tissue? Gum tissue (gingival)
This membrane anchors the teeth and lines the socket. Periodontal Membrane
________ _________ is disease of enamel, dentin and cementum and leads to a permanent defect called cavities Dental Caries
Baby teeth are referred to as Deciduous
Chewing is referred to as ___________ Mastication
This is the accessory gland that is the 1st step in digestion. Salivary glands
What are the 3 salivary glands? Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual
Which salivary gland opens on either side of the lingual frenulum? Submandibular
This gland is associate with the Mumps. Parotid
Deciduous teeth do not have these? Premolars
This attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth Lingual Frenulum
The wall of the pulp cavity is covered by this Dentin
The permanent central incisor erupts between the ages of ____ & _____ 7 and 8
The 3rd premolar is often refered to as this and appears at what age? Wisdom Teeth; 17-24
The volume of saliva secreted by an adult per day is____________ 1 liter
How many premolars are there? 2
How many incisors are there in an adult? 8
This tubelike stucture functions as part of the respiratory and digestive system. Pharynx
Food enters the stomach by passing through the muscular _____________ _________ of the esophagus. cardiac sphincter
Name the 3 parts of the stomach. Fundus, body, pylorus
After the food has set in the stomach for approximately this amount of time, chyme then enters into the small intestines 3 hours
The stomach folds are called? Rugae
The intestinal folds are called? Plicae
The lower left border of the stomach is called? Greater curvature
This condition could cause chyme to go in a backward movement and into the lower part of the esophagus Hiatal Hernia
Name the parts of the small intestine. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
The union of the cystic duct and hepatic duct form the ? Common Bile Duct
Each villus in the intestine contains a lymphatic vessel that absorbs fat material Lacteal
The middle 3rd of the duodenum contains this opening? Major duodenal papilla
Most gastric and duodenal ulcers result from an infection with the bacterium: Helicobacter pylori
What kind of gland is the liver? Exocrine
Fats in the chyme stimulate the secretion of the hormone ____________ in the duodenum: Cholecystokinin
What does the hormone cholecystokinin act upon? The contraction of the gallbladder thus releasing the stored bile.
What breaks large fat globules into smaller fat globules? Bile
The 2 products used to break down fat? Bile & Lipase
This organ is the majority of absorbtion Small intestines
What is the most important digestive juice? Pancreatic juice
What is the purpose of sodium bicarbonate secreted by the pancreas? In neutralized the hydrochloric acid from the stomach (from gastric juice)
Why is pancreatic juice the most important digestive juice? It contains enzymes that digest all 3 major kinds of foods.
The 2 main functions of bile is what? Rid the body of cholesterol and emulsify fats.
The large intestine is approximately how long? 5 feet.
Undigested or unabsorbed food enters the large intestine through what valve? Ileocecal valve
Bacteria in the large intestine is responsible for the production of what vitamin? Vitamin K and some B-Complex vitamins
Normal passage of material in the large intestine takes approximately how long? 3 to 5 days.
Name (in order as material passes) the sections of the large intestine: Cecum, ascending colon, Hepatic flexure, Transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, Sigmoid colon, Rectum, Anal Canal
The large, moist slippery sheet of serous memebrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the organs is called what? Peritoneum
The part of the peritoneum that lines the abdominal cavity is called what layer? Parietal Layer
What part of the peritoneum covers all of the organs within the abdominal cavity? Visceral layer
The small space between the parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum is called what? Peritoneal Space
What are the 2 most prominent extensions of the peritoneum? Mesentary and Greater Omentum
Gastric juice does or does not contain any carbohydrate digesting enzymes? Does not.
The pancreatic enzyme that starts the digestive process of carbohydrates is called? Amylase
Amylase breaks down what? Polysaccharides into disaccharides
What 3 enzymes break down disaccharides into simple sugars? Maltase, Sacrase, Lactase
The most abundant monosaccharide is ? Glucose
Which food digestion starts in the stomach? Protein
Pepsinogen in gastric juice becomes _____________, an active enzyme when combined with ___________. Pepsin, Hydrocholoric acid
Once protein enters the intestine, another enzyme from pancreatic juice and a different enzyme from intestinal juice finish protein digestion. What are these enzymes? Tripase from pancreatic juice and peptidases from intestinal juice
What is the end product of protein digestion? Amino Acid
What product from the liver emulsifies fat? Bile
What finishes fat digestion and where does it come from? Lipase from the Pancreas
Amylase digests what and comes from what 2 juices? starches and comes from saliva and pancreas
The end product of Amylase is what? Maltose (Disaccharides)
Gastic juice contains what 2 components? Pepsin and hydrochloric acid (protein digestion)
Pancreatic juice contains what 3 substances? Proteases (trypsin), Lipases, Amylase
The end product of Proteases from the pancreas is what? Amino acid and peptides
Intestinal juices contain what enzymes? Peptidases, sucrase, lactase, maltase
Created by: foster1317