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Anat - The Sole

Anat. - The Sole

QuestionAnswer
What are the weight bearing points of the foot? (4) 1) The heel 2) lateral margin 3) ball of the foot 4) skin on the sole of the foot, especially on the weight-bearing points are much thicker.
Posteriorly, the plantar aponeurosis is attached to what? calcaneous
Is the plantar aponeurosis a superficial or deep fascia layer? deep fascia layer
What are the muscles that are found in the 1st layer of the sole? 1) Abductor hallucis 2) Flexor digitorum brevis 3) Abductor digiti minimi
OIA & N of abductor hallucis O:Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus; flexor retinaculum; plantar aponeurosis I: Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit A: Abducts and flexes 1st digit (great toe, hallux) N: Medial plantar nerve (S2, S)
OIA & N of Flexor digitorum brevis O: Medial tubercle of tuberosity of calcaneus; plantar aponeurosis; intermuscular septa I: Both sides of middle phalanges of lateral 4 digits A: Flexes lateral 4 digits N: Medial plantar nerve (S2, S3)
OIA & N of Abductor digiti minimi O: Medial and lateral tubercles of tuberosity of calcaneus; plantar aponeurosis; intermuscular septa I: Lateral side of base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit A: Abducts and flexes little toe (5th digit) N: Lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
What are the muscles of the 2nd layer of the sole? (2) 1) Quadratus plantae 2) Lumbricals
OIA & N of Quadratus plantae O: Medial surface and lateral margin of plantar surface of calcaneus I: Posterolateral margin of tendon of flexor digitorum longus A: Assists flexor digitorum longus in flexing lateral 4 digits N: Lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
OIA & N of Lumbricals O: Tendons of flexor digitorum longus I: Medial aspect of expansion over lat 4 digits A: Flex prox.phalanges, extend middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits N: Medial 1: medial plantar nerve (S2, S3) Lateral 3: lateral plantar nerve (S2, S
Muscles of Foot: 3rd layer of Sole 1) Flexor halluces brevis 2) Adductor hallucis 3) Flexor digit minimi brevis
Muscles of the Foot:4th Layer of Sole 1) Plantar interossei (3 muscles) 2) Dorsal interossei (4 muscles
OIA & N of Flexor halluces brevis O: Plantar surfaces of cuboid and lateral cuneiforms I: Both sides of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit A: Flexes proximal phalanx of 1st digit N: Medial plantar nerve (S2, S3)
OIA of Adductor hallucis O: Oblique head: bases of metatarsals 2-4 Transverse head: plantar ligs of(MTP) jts I: Tendons of both heads attach to lat. side of base of proximal phalanx of 1st digit A: adduct 1st digit; assist in transverse arch of foot by metatarsals medially
N of Adductor Hallucis N: Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
OIA & N of Flexor digit minimi brevis O: Base of 5th metatarsal I: Base of proximal phalanx of 5th digit A: Flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit, thereby assisting with its flexion N: Superificial branch of lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
OIA & N of Plantar interossei (3 muscles) O: Bases and medial sides of metatarsals 3-5 I: Medial sides of bases of phalanges of 3rd-5th digits A: Adduct digits (2-4) and flex metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints N: Lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
OIA & N of Dorsal interossei (4 muscles) O: Adjacent sides of metatarsals 1-5 I: 1st: medial side of proximal phalanx of 2nd digit; 2nd-4th: lateral sides of 2nd-4th digits A: Abduct digits (2-4) and flex MTP joints N: Lateral plantar nerve (S2, S3)
What layer do we find the fibularis longus tendon? can be palpated and observed proximal and posterior to the lateral malleolus.
What is tibialis posterior’s distal attachment? Tuberosity of navicular, cuneiform, cuboid, and sustentaculum tali of calcaneus; bases of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th metatarsals
What is the “function” of the sustentaculum tali? Attachment site for: Platnar calcaneonavicular (“spring”) ligament and Medial ligament (Deltoid ligament): tibiocalcaneal and tibionavicular parts.
What is hammer toe? foot deformity in which the proximal phalanx is permanently and markedly dorsiflexed (hyperextended) at MTP joint and middle phalanx strongly plantarflexed at the proximal IP joint. The distal phalanx of the digit is also hyperextended.
Which tendons need to be stretched in physical therapy? (4 altogether, but 2 pairs) 1) EDL and EDB (because it aids the EDL in extending the 4 medial toes at MTP and IP joint), 2) EHL and EHB (b/c aids EHL is extending great toe at MTP joint).
Which muscles may be weak in a person with a hammer toe? 1) lumbrical 2) interosseous muscles (these flex the MTP joints and extend the IP joints)
Which cuneiform is the biggest? medial cuneiform
What does the medial cuneiform articulate with distally? 1st metatarsal
What muscles attach to the medial cuneiform? TA and FL
Where is a liste franc fracture found? When the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsals and the arch collapses.
How exactly does the arch collapse? Which metatarsal bone causes the collapse? 2nd metatarsal
What are the 3 arches of the foot? 1. medial longitudinal arch 2. lateral longitudinal arch 3. transverse arch
The loss of which arch causes the foot to splay out? transverse arch
What ligament supports the medial longitudinal arch? both plantar and spring ligaments
What does the plantar aaponeurosis become posteriorly? transverse metatarsal ligaments
Created by: jnorthcutt