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Positioning

Chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
How many tarsal bones are found in the body? 7
Which metatarsal of the foot has a prominent tuberosity frequently fractured? the 5th
Which term describes the top or anterior surface of the foot? Dorsum
Where would the interphalangeal joint be found in the foot? between phalanges of first digit
Which structure or bone contains the sustentaculum tali? Calcaneous
How many facets make up the subtalar joint? three
What are the two arches of the foot? Transverse and longitudinal
The medial malleolus is part of the? Tibia
The ankle joint is a _______ joint with a ______ type of movement? synovial, sellar
Another term for the intercondylar sulcus is the? patellar surface
True or False. The patella is drawn into the intercondylar sulcus when the knee is overextended. False
`The most commonly torn ligament of the knee due to a football injury of a blow to the lateral side of the knee is the? Tibial collateral
Saclike structures found in the knee joint that allow smooth articulation between ligaments and tendons are called? Bursae
The best method of evaluating injuries to the menisci and ligaments of the knee joint is (are)? MRI procedures
What type of joint movement is seen with the patellofemoral joint? Sellar
The distal tibiofibular joint is classified as? fibrous
Which one of the following joints is a modified ellipsoidal or condyloid joint? A. Tarsometatarsal B. Metatarsophalangeal C. Proximal Tibiofibular D. Intertarsal Answer is B. Metatarsophalangeal joint
Extending the ankle joint or pointing the foot and toes downward is called: plantar flexion
Which one of the following set of exposure factors would be best for an AP knee projection? (The knee measures 12 cms). A. 60 kVp, 10 mAs, detail screens, nongrid, 40 in SId B. 70 kVp, 5 mAs, detail screens, nongrid, 40 in SID C. 70 kVp, 5 mAs, high speed screens, grid, 40 in. SID D. 80 kVp, 5 mAs, high speed screens, grid, 40 in. SID Answer is C.
How much CR angulation (if any) should be used for an AP projection of the toes? 10 to 15 degree toward calcaneous
Which one of the following routines should be performed for a study of the 2nd toe? AP, PA oblique with medial rotation, lateromedial projection.
A lateral knee radiograph that is over-rotated can be recognized by? The fibular head will appear less superimposed by the tibia than a true lateral.
True or False. A correctly positioned AP mortise ankle frequently will also demonstrate a fracture of the base of the 5th metatarsal if present. True
To properly visualize the joint spaces with the AP projection of the foot, the CR must be? Perpendicular to the metatarsals.
Which position of the foot will best demonstrate the lateral cuneiform? AP oblique with medial rotation
What is one advantage of the lateromedial projection of the foot? The foot assumes a more true lateral position
What CR angulation is required for the AP oblique projection of the foot? CR is perpendicular to the film
How much CR angulation to the long axis of the foot is required for the plantodorsal axial projection of the calcaneus? 40 degree cephalad
Where is the CR placed for a mediolateral projection of the calcaneous? 1 1/2 in distal to the medial malleolus
Which joint surfaces of the ankle joint are open with a true AP projection of the ankle? Medial and superior
How much rotation from an AP of an ankle will produce a mortise view? 15 to 20 degree
Which projection of the ankle best demonstrates the distal tibiofibular joint? AP oblique with 45 degree rotation
What is the purpose for the AP stress views of the ankle? Demonstrate possible joint separation
To ensure that both joints are included on an AP projection of the tibia and fibula on an adult, the technologist should? Turn cassette diagonally
What CR angulation is required for an AP projection of the knee on a patient with thin thighs and buttocks? 3 to 5 degree caudad
Which projection of the knee will best demonstrate the styloid process of the fibula? AP oblique with medial rotation
What CR angle should be used for a lateral projection of the knee on a short, wide-pelvis patient? 7 to 10 degree cephalad
What is the major disadvantage of using 45 degree of flexion for the lateral projection of the knee? Draws the patella into the intercondylar sulcus
The patient skin dose range for any of the ankle or foot projections is? 10-30 mrad
True or False. The mortise view of the ankle is commonly taken in surgery during open reductions. True
True or False. Follow-up radiographs for a fractured tibia and fibula may include only the joint closest to the site of injury. True
True or False. AP weight bearing projections of the knee should have the knees flexed 20 degree with a 10 degree caudad CR angle. False.
Which special position of the knee requires that the patient be placed on "all fours", the femurs forward 10 to 30 degree and the CR perpendicular to popliteal crease? PA axial, holmblad
How much flexion of the knee is best for the lateral projetion of the patella? 5 to 10 degree or less
How much knee flexion is required for the Settegast method? 90 degree
A radiograph of an AP projection of the 2nd toe reveals that the phalangeal joints are not open. What is the most likely cause for this radiographic outcome? Incorrect CR centering and/or angle.
A radiograph of a dorsoplantar projection of the foot reveals that the mid shaft regions of the 4th and 5th metatarsals are slightly superimposed. What is teh mostlikely reason for this radiographic outcome? Lateral rotation
A radiograph of AP ankle reveals the lateral joint space is not open (lateral malleolus is partially superimposed by the talus). The superior and medial joint spaces are open. What should the technologist do to correct this problem on the repeat exposure. Nothing, this is an acceptable image
A radiograph of a lateral knee reveals that the medial condyle of the femur is projected posterior to the lateral condyle. What is the most likely cause for this radiographic outcome? rotation of anterior knee away from film (under-rotation)
The visibility of the adductor tubercle posteriorly on a lateral knee indicates? under-rotation of the knee
A radiograph of a lateral projection of the patella reveals that the patellofemoral joint space isn't open. The patella is superimposed over the distal femur. What may be the most likely cause of this radiographic outcome? Excessive flexion of the knee
A radiograph of an AP knee reveals rotation and there is almost total superimposition of the fibular head and the proximal tibia. What must the technologist do to correct this positioning error on the repeat exposure? Rotate the knee laterally
A radiograph of a PA axial for intercondylar fossa shows it is foreshortened. The following factors were used: patient prone, 40 degree flexion of knee CR angled to perpendicular to femur, 40 in SID no rotation of lower limb. What changes need to be made? CR must be perpendicular to lower leg
Aand the lateral joint space is not open. What is the most likely cause? insufficient medial rotation of foot
A patient has a lower leg fracture reduced and cast. Cast is plaster and wet. The following factors were used initially 65 kVp 10 mAs 40 in SID. What factors should be used on the postreduction study? Increase kVp by 8 - 10 or mAs by 100% The answer is 65 kVp, 20 mAs, 40 in SID and detail speed screens
A geriatric patient comes to radiology for knee study. The following projections were ordered AP, AP with medial rotation, lateral and intercondylar fossa projections. The patient is unsteady and unsure of himself. What intercondylar fossa should be done? Camp coventry method
A patient comes to radiology for an evaluation of the longitudinal arch of the foot. What projection would provide the best information about the arch? Lateral weight bearing projection
A patient enters the ER with a possible transverse fracture of the patella. What routine would provide the best images of the knee safely? AP and horizontal beam lateral, no flexion
A patient comes to ER with an injury near the base of the 1st and 2nd metatarsal. The basic foot projections are inconclusive ondemonstrating a fracture to the medial cuneiform. What is the best projection? AP oblique with lateral projection
A patient comes to radiology with a history of chondromalacia of the patella. The surgeon is concerned about loose bodies in the patellofemoral joint space. What is the best projection? Merchant Method
A patient comes to ER with possible tibial collateral ligament tear. What studies would best demonstrate the extent of the injury? MRA study
True or False. Another term for Holmblad method is a "sunrise" projection? False
True or False. 3 to 5 degree caudad CR angle should be used for an AP knee projection for patients with thick thighs. False, cephalad
True or False. The tangential projection for the sesamoid bones should be performed prone to avoid image distortion if patient condition allows. True
The foot must be dorsiflexed so the long axis of the foot is perpendicular to the film for AP and mortise projections ot the ankle. False.
PA Axial Weight Bearing Bilateral Knee Projection: Knee is also called? Rosenberg Method
PA Axial Projection-Tunnel View: Knee-Intercondyla Fossa has 4 variations, name them. 1. Camp Coventry 2. Holmblad kneeling 3. Holmblad partially standing 4. wheelchair version
AP axial projection: Knee-intercondylar fossa is also called? Beclere Method
Tangential (axial or sunrise/skyline) projection: Patella is also called 5 other names, what are they? merchant bilateral method, inferosuperior projection, hughston method, settegast method, sitting tangential method
Created by: Baker RAD 2012