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Ch 15 Vocabulary

AP Psychology Personality Vocabulary

1. personality individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
2. free association in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
3. psychoanalysis Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
4.unconsciousness according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, the id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
6.ego the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
7. superego part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
8. psychosexual stages childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on direct erogenous zones
9. Oedipus complex according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
10. identification process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
11. fixation according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts are unresolved
12. defense mechanism in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
13. repression in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
14. regression defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
15. reaction formation psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, ppl may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
16. projection psychoanalytic theory defense mechanism by which ppl disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
17. rationalization defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
18. displacement psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
19. projective test personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
20. Thematic Apperception Test projective test in which ppl express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
21. Rorschach inkblot test most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify ppl's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
22. collective unconsciousness Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
23. self-actualization according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
24. unconditional positive regard according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
25. self-concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
26. trait characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
27. personality inventory questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which ppl respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
28. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes
29. empirically deprived test test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
30. social-cognitive perspective views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
31. reciprocal determinism interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
32. personal control our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
33. external locus of control perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's own fate
34. internal locus of control perception that one controls one's own fate
35. learned helplessness hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
36. positive psychology the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
37. spotlight effect overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
38. self-esteem one's feeling of high or low self-worth
39. self-serving bias readiness to perceive oneself favorably
40. individualism emphasizes personal achievement
41. collectivism emphasizes family and work group goals
42. terror-management theory proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
Created by: lthom
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