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RADT 456

ARRT Reg Review Rad Proct

QuestionAnswer
What is used to account for the differences in tissue sensitivity to ionizing radiation when determining effective dose E? Tissue weighting factors
List a cell type that has the greatest radiosensitivity in the human adult? lymphocytes
Guidelines for the use of protective shielding state that gonadal shielding should be used when___? the patient has reasonable reproductive potential and when the gonads are within 5 cm of the collimated field
The ineraction between ionizing radiation and the target molecule that is most likely to occur is what? indirect effect
List two devices that help reduce patient dose. collimator and gonad shield
How will x-ray photon intensity be affected if the source-to-image distance (SID) is doubled? its intensity decreases four times
List two sources of natural background radiation contributing to whole-body radiation dose. terrestrial radionuclides and internal radionuclides
Irradiation of water molecules within the body and their resulting breakdown is termed what? radiolysis
What contributes most to occupational exposure? Compton scatter
The x-ray interaction with mater that is responsible for the majority of scattered radiation reaching the image receptor is what? compton scatter
A thermoluminescent dosimetry system would use which kind of crystals? lithium fluoride
List three things that has an effect on patient dose. kilovoltage, milliampere-seconds, inherent filtration
The photoelectric effect is more likely to occur with what? absorbers having a high Z number (atomic #) and positive contrast media
List three radiation-exposure responses that exhibit nonlinear threshold dose-response relationship. skin erythema, hematologic depression, radiation lethality
What is recommended for the pregnant radiographer? wear a second dosimeter under the lead apron
The annual dose limit for medical imaging personnel includes radiation from what? occupational exposure
Medical and dental radiation accounts for what percentage of the general public's exposure to human-made radiation? 90%
Which cells are nondividing cells? neurons and neuroglia
How does filtration affect the primary beam? it increases the average energy of the primary beam
Immature cells are refferred to as what? stem cells and undifferentiated cells
Patient dose increases as fluoroscopic _________ decreases. FOV
LET is defined as what? a method of expressing radiation quality and a measure of the rate at which radiation energy is transferred to soft tissue
The skin response to radiation exposure that appears as hair loss is known as what? epilation
The reduction in the intensity of an x-ray beam as it passes through material is called what? attenuation
What method is used to reduce radiation exposure to a recently fertilized ovum? elective booking, patient questionnaire, and the 10-day rule
What most effectively minimizes radiation exposure to the patient? high-speed intensifying screens
For radiographic examinations of the skull, it is preferred that the skull be examined in what projection? PA projection
Created by: jmbickett