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Ch 6 - CommDisorders

Exceptional Lives - Communication Disorders

speech disorder difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders or voice quality or fluency of speech (stuttering)
language disorder difficulty receiving, understanding, or formulating ideas and information
receptive language disorder difficulty receiving or understanding information
expressive language disorder difficulty formulating ideas and information
cleft palate or lip a condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip
dialect language variation that a group of individuals uses and that reflects shared regional, social, or cultural/ethnic factors
speech oral expression of language
language structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating
phonology the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words; encompasses rules and sequencing of individual speech sounds (phonemes)
phonemes individual speech sounds
morphology system that governs the structure of words
morpheme smallest meaningful unit of speech
syntax provides rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences
semantics refers to the meaning of what is expressed
pragmatics refers to the use of communication in contexts; overall organizer for language
social interaction theories emphasize that communication skills are learned through social interactions
articulation speaker's production of individual or sequenced sounds
substitutions an articulation error, such as /d/ for /th/
omissions an articulation error, leaving a phoneme out of a word
additions an articulation error, placing a vowel between two consonants
distortions an articulation disorder, modifications of the production of a phoneme in a word
apraxia motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech
pitch determined by the rate of vibration in the vocal folds, affected by the tension and size of the vocal folds
duration the length of time any speech sound requires
intensity loudness or softness, based on the perception of the listener and is determined by the air pressure coming from the lungs through the vocal folds
resonance the perceived quality of someone's voice, determined by the way in which the tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth ,and nose
hypernasality air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity on sounds other than /m/, /n/, and /ng/
hyponasality air cannot pass through the nose and comes through the mouth instead
fluency rate and rhythm of speaking
specific language impairment impairment not related to any physical or intellectual disability
organic disorders caused by an identifiable problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person
functional disorders disorder with no identifiable organic or neurological cause
oral motor exam examination of the appearance, strength and range of the motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth, and jaw
bilingual uses two languages equally well
bidialectical uses two variations of a language
System for Augmenting Language (SAL) focuses on augmented input of language
congenital disorder a disorder that occurs at or before birth
acquired disorder a disorder that occurs well after birth
Created by: Naaron