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Psychology- chapter5

Activation-synthesis Theory Maintains that dreams represent the brain's attempt to interpret random patterns of neural activation triggered by the brain stem during sleep
Agonist A drug that increases or mimics the activity or a neurotransmitter
Alcohol Myopia When intoxicated a “shortsightedness” in thinking caused by an inability to pay attention to as much information as when sober.
Alpha Waves A brain wave pattern of 8 to 12 cycles per second that is characteristic of humans in a relaxed, drowsy state.
Antagonist A drug that inhibits or decreases the action of a neurotransmitter
Automatic (unconsciousness) Processing Mental activities that occur with minimal or no conscious control or awareness
Beta Waves A brain wave pattern of 15 to 30 cycles per second that is characteristic of humans who are in an alert waking state
Blindsight A disorder in which people are blind in part of their visual field yet, in special tests, respond to stimuli in that field despite reporting that they cannot see those stimuli
Blood-brain Barrier A specialized lining of cells in the brain's blood vessels that screens out foreign substances while letting nutrients pass through to neurons
Circadian Rhythms biological cycles within the body that occur on an approximately 24-hour cycle
Cognitive-process Dream Theories Approaches that focus on how we dream, and propose that dreaming and waking thought are produced by the same mental systems in the brain
Compensatory Responses A bodily response that opposes a drug's effects and occurs in an attempt to restore homeostasis
Consciousness Our moment-to-moment awareness of ourselves and our environment
Controlled (consciousness) Processing Mental control that requires volitional control and attentiveness
Delta Waves Low frequency, high amplitude brain waves that occur in stage 3 sleep and predominate in stage 4 sleep
Depressants Drugs that reduce neural activity and can decrease feelings of tension and anxiety
Dissociation Theories Views that focus on hypnosis as an altered state involving a division of consciousness
Divided Attention The ability to perform more than one activity at the same time
Evolutionary/ Circadian Sleep Models The view that in the course of evolution, each species developed an adaptive circadian sleep-wake pattern that increased its chances of survival in relation to its environmental demands
Fantasy-prone Personality The tendency of some people to spend much of their waking time living in a vivid, rich fantasy world that they control
Hallucinogens Drugs that distort or intensify sensory experiences and evoke hallucinations and disordered thought processes
Hypnosis A condition of enhanced suggestibility in which some people are able to experience imagined situations as if they were real
Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales A set of induction procedures and test questions that enable researchers to measure a person's responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions
Insomnia A sleep disorder involving chronic difficulty in falling asleep, staying asleep, or experiencing restful sleep
Melatonin A hormone, secreted by the pineal gland, that has a relaxing effect on the body and promotes a readiness for sleep
Memory Consolidation The creation and binding together of neural codes that allow information to be transferred from working memory into long-term memory
Narcolepsy A sleep disorder that involves extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks during waking hours
Night Terrors A disorder in which a sleeper becomes aroused to a near panic state
Opiates A category of drugs consisting of opium and drugs derived from it, such as morphine, codeine, and heroin
Priming Occurs when exposure to a stimulus influences how you subsequently respond to that same or another stimulus
Problem-solving Dream Models The view that dreams can help us find creative solutions to our problems and conflicts because they are not constrained by reality
REM Sleep A recurring sleep stage characterized by rapid eye movements, increased physiological arousal, paralysis of the voluntary muscles, and a high rate of dreaming
RBD A sleep disorder in which the loss of muscle tone that causes normal REM-sleep paralysis is absent, thereby enabling sleepers to move about and seemingly act out their dreams
Restoration Model The theory that sleep recharges our run-down bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue
Seasonal Affective Disorder A disorder in which depressive symptoms appear or worsen during certain seasons of the year and then improve during other seasons.
Selective Attention A cognitive process that focuses awareness on some stimuli to the exclusion of others
Sleep Apnea A disorder characterized by a repeated cycle in which the sleeper stops breathing, momentarily awakens gasping for air, and then returns to sleep
Slow-wave Sleep Stages 3 and 4 of sleep, in which the EEG pattern shows large, slow brain waves called delta waves
Social-cognitive Theories The view that hypnotic experiences occur because people are highly motivated to assume the role of being hypnotized
Stimulants Drugs that stimulate neural activity, resulting in a state of excitement or aroused euphoria
Substance Dependence A maladaptive pattern of substance use that causes a person significant distress or substantially impairs that person's life
Suprachiasmatic Nuclei The brain's master “biological clock”, located in the hypothalamus, that regulates most circadian rhythms
THC The major active ingredient in marijuana
Tolerance A condition in which increasingly larger doses of a drug are required to produce the same level of bodily responses
Visual Agnosia A disorder in which an individual is unable to visually recognize objects
Wish Fulfillment In Freudian theory the partial or complete satisfaction of a psychological need through dreaming or waking fantasy
Withdrawal The occurrence of compensatory responses after drug use is discontinued, causing the person to experience physiological reactions opposite to those that had been produced by the drug.
Created by: Akile6