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PSY201

Exam-review1

QuestionAnswer
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Pseudopsychologies are unreliable approaches that do not use the scientific method Examples of pseudopsychologies include: Astrology: system that tries to relate personality to the movement of the stars Palmistry: idea that reading a person’s character from the lines on
Goals of Psychology Description of behavior using careful observations Explanation involves identifying the cause(s) of behavior Prediction allows for specification of the conditions under which a behavior will occur or not Psychological knowledge can be used to assist ch
There are Two forms of psychological research: Basic research seeks answers for theoretical questions E.g. How is hunger controlled by the brain? Can be done in the lab ‘bench research’ Applied research seeks answers for specific application problems E.g. Organizational psychology studies leaders
Areas of Psychology Clinical Educational School Industrial/organiz-ational Developmental Social Comparative Neuropsychology Health psychology Cognitive
The Experiment An experiment involves a set of controlled conditions that aims to confirm a hypothesis
Hypothesis refers to a statement of cause and effect: “Higher environmental temperatures lead to more aggression” “Exposure to marijuana increases appetite”
To test a hypothesis, an experimenter defines the variables of the hypothesis: Cause: Independent variable (IV) Marijuana: Plain cigarette versus cigarette containing 5 mg of THC (the active ingredient in marijuana) Effect: Dependent variable (DV) Appetite: Grams of ice cream consumed in 1 hour The experimenter manipulates the
Research Issues Experimental Group Control Group Experimenter Bias Double-Blind Study Placebo Random Assignment
Naturalistic observation refers to the systematic recording of behavior in a natural state or habitat Jane Goodall observing apes in the wild
Surveys are instruments designed to sample attitudes or behaviors Asking persons at a rally how they feel about animal rights issues
case study is an in-depth study of a single person Freud used the case study method to probe anxiety
Correlational Research The correlation technique indicates the degree of association between 2 variables Correlations vary in direction: Positive association: Negative association: No relation
Biological Research sections Lesions Case studieDiss Electrical recording Electrical stimulation Split-brain surgery CT scan PET scan MRI scan fMRI scan
Informed consent is an explanation of a study and the responsibilities of experimenter and participant
Deception involving the subjects must be justified
Confidentiality of study information must be maintained
Debriefing refers to explaining the research process to the subjects at the end of the study
Early Pioneers of Psychology Experimental Psychology – (1870’s – 1880’s) Wilhelm Wundt – founder of experimental psychology Established first psychology laboratory in Germany Interested in studying the thought processes
Early Pioneers in Psychology Structuralism 1890’s Edward Titchener, founder, one of Wundt’s followers Brought study to U.S. Studied thought processes, conscious mind
Early Pioneers in Psychology Functionalism 1890’s William James, James Dewey Investigated “functions” or purposes of behavior Continued to study the conscious mind
Modern Psychology Views Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud, Austrian Physician Late 1800’s, early 1900’s Study of the unconscious mind Study of dreams; unconscious material that is brought to surface by counselor
Modern Psychology Views Behaviorism Early 1900’s John Watson, B.F. Skinner Emphasize observable behaviors, overt behaviors Measure, scientifically study these behaviors
Modern Psychology Views Gestalt Psychology Founded by Max Wertheimer Early 1900’s Believed in the importance of mental activities Insisted that experience be studied as a “whole”
Neurons cell that receives signals from other neurons or sense organs, processes these signals, and sends the signals to other neurons, muscles, or bodily organs
There are Three types: 1.Sensory neurons – a neuron that responds to input from sense organs 2.Motor neurons – a neuron that sends signals to muscles to control movement 3.Interneuron – a neuron that is connected to other neurons (found in the brain)
Glial cells cell that fills the gaps between neurons
Neurons are composed of: Dendrites: receive information and pass it to cell body Cell Body: summarizes information Axon: extends from cell body, carries electrical potential, sends a chemical message to adjacent neurons
Resting Potential Neurons are not always firing. When at rest they maintain a negative charge which is called the resting potential.
During resting potential: Sodium ions are concentrated on the outside of the axon membrane. + Potassium ions are concentrated on the inside of the axon membrane. + Chloride and Anion ions are concentrated inside the cell. (Both are negatively charged) Ion channels are closed.
Action Potential occurs when the membrane potential becomes positive
When is Resting Potential restored? Resting Potential is restored when other channels open, allowing potassium ions to re-enter the axon and sodium ions to exit the axon
Myelin is a fatty, waxy substance coating the axon of some neurons.
Myelin functions: Speeds neurotransmission Insulates neurons from each other Makes neurotransmission more efficient
synapse is the junction between an axon terminal and an adjacent dendrite or cell body.
Neurotransmitter (NT) Molecules are released from the axon terminal into the synapse when the action potential arrives at the axon terminal.
Synaptic Cleft the gap between the axon of one neuron and the membrane of another, across which communication occurs
Receptor a site on the dendrite or the cell body where the messenger molecule attaches itself
Serotonin affects mood, sleep, appetite
Acetylcholine affects muscle action, cognitive functioning, memory
Norepinephrine affects learning, memory, dreaming, emotion
Epinephrine affects emotional arousal and memory storage
GABA inhibitory actions in the CNS
Endorphins elevate mood, reduce pain, affect memory
Psychoactive drugs affect the nervous system to alter mood, emotion, and thought
Psychoactive drugs act by: Increasing or decreasing release of neurotransmitters Stimulating or blocking receptor sites
Agonists Psychoactive drugs enhance neurotransmitter function
Antagonist Psychoactive drugs block neurotransmitter function SSRI – selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
Central Nervous System (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord Spinal cord connects the brain with the PNS Spinal cord is comprised of cell bodies and axons that carry messages Afferent: toward the brain (sensory function) Efferent: away from the brain (motor function)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) includes all nerves outside the brain and spinal cord Somatic NS carries sensory messages to brain and motor commands to the muscles Autonomic NS regulates automatic body functions (such as heart rate, breathing) Sympathetic: “Fight or Flight” (respo
Meninges (brain) 3 protective layered membranes that cover the brain; first thing you would see under the skull
Cerebral Hemisphere (brain) left or right half of the brain
Corpus Callosum (brain) band of nerve fibers that connect the 2 halves of the brain
Cerebral Cortex (brain) the pinkish gray surface of the brain where most mental processes take place
Sulcus (brain) a crease in the cerebral cortex
Cortex is divided into lobes Frontal: Self-awareness, planning, voluntary movement, emotional control, speech, working memory Parietal: Body sensations, motor control Occipital: Vision Temporal: Hearing, language comprehension
Somatosensory Strip registers sensation on the body and is organized by the body
Motor Strip controls fine movements and is organized by body part
Brainstem is a primitive portion of brain
Pons: involved in respiration, sleep regulation, dreaming
Medulla: involved in life support functions such as respiration and heart rate
Reticular activating system is an arousal system within the brainstem; plays a role in keeping a person awake and alert
Corpus callosum: band of axons that interconnects the hemispheres
Thalamus: sensory relay area
Limbic system: involved in emotionality
Hypothalamus: feeding, fleeing, mating, fighting, homeostasis
Cerebellum: involved in motor control
The Endocrine System Network of glands; Hormones are secreted into the blood by the endocrine system Hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland (size of a pea), which is responsible for releasing hormones that flow throughout the body
Functions of the endocrine system: 1. Maintain homeostasis 2. Regulate reproductive system
Testosterone (hormone) causes males to develop sex characteristics and build muscle volume
Estrogen (hormone) causes women to develop sex characteristics and is involved in the menstrual cycle
Cortisol (hormone) helps the body cope with extra energy demands of stress by breaking down and converting fat and protein into sugar
Behavioral genetics examines the influence of genes (versus environment) on behavior
Research strategies on behavior genetics: Twin studies: compare the concordance (agreement) rates between identical and fraternal twins Adoption studies: compare the similarity between adopted children and their biological/adopted parents Mutations: examine behaviors in genetically abnormal sub
Evolutionary psychology examines how evolutionary processes impact behavior
Darwin argued that natural forces select traits that are adaptive for survival
Natural selection: certain traits are passed on because these traits gave an advantage for survival Organisms with these traits are able to reproduce and pass on the trait to their offspring Genetic mutations can be beneficial or disastrous
Sensation the process of receiving, converting, and transmitting information from the external and internal world to the brain
Perception the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting raw sensory data into useful mental representations of the world
How sensation occurs? Eyes, ears, skin, nose, and tongue and contain receptor cells These receptor cells receive and process sensory information from the environment
Transduction: sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, skin, tongue) convert the stimulus into neural impulses which are sent to the brain
An example of transduction Receptor cells in the inner ear convert sound waves/vibrations into electrochemical signals These signals are carried by neurons to the brain
Sensory Adaptation Sensory adaptation refers to the fact that repeated or constant stimulation decreases the number of sensory messages sent to the brain, which causes decreased sensation
Gate-Control Theory of Pain Theory proposed by Melzack & Wall (1965) Pain sensations are processed and altered by mechanisms within the spinal cord. Experience of pain depends partly on whether the neural messages get past a neuron in the spinal cord that can either block messages
Vision External light falls on receptors within the eye to generate the visual message. Light = electromagnetic energy that moves in waves Wavelength of light determines color
Cornea tough, transparent layer
Pupil adjustable opening
Iris colored part of the eye; controls size of pupil
Lens transparent elastic structure
Retina group of light receptors
Optic Nerve carries neural messages to the brain
Fovea tiny pit in the center of the retina filled with cones and responsible for sharp vision
Photoreceptors are light-sensitive cells found within the retina.
Rods are sensitive to light, but not color, and are active under low-light conditions
Cones are sensitive to color, are not active in low-light conditions, and allow for fine detail.
Sensory Coding Activation of retinal cells by light results in action potentials that travel along neurons that project to the occipital cortex
Audition Receptors within the ear are tuned to detect sound waves (changes in sound pressure level). Sound waves vary in terms of: Frequency: corresponds to pitch Amplitude: corresponds to loudness
Sound loudness is measured in decibels
Place theory: explains how we hear high pitched
Frequency Theory: explains how we hear lower
sounds: different high-pitched sounds bend the basilar membrane hair cells at different locations in the cochlea.
pitched sounds: hair cells on the basilar membrane of the cochlea bend and fire action potentials at the same rate as the frequency of the sound to the auditory nerve.
There are 2 types of deafness (hearing lost): Conduction deafness: Middle-ear deafness resulting from problems with transferring sound waves to the inner-ear. Nerve Deafness: Inner-ear deafness resulting from damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory nerve. Disease, age, and exposure to loud
Lock-and-Key Theory: humans can smell various odors because each three-dimensional odor molecule fits into only one type of receptor.
Taste receptors are located on the tongue and are sensitive to five major tastes: salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami (delicious/savory; related to meats, fish, cheese).
Skin Senses: there are three basic skin sensations: touch (pressure), temperature, and pain.
Vestibular Sense: sense of body orientation with respect to gravity and three-dimensional space The semicircular canals provide the brain with balance information.
Kinesthetic Sense: sensory system for body posture, orientation and movement Kinsethetic receptors are found throughout the muscles, joints, and tendons of the body.
Perceptual processes include: Selection refers to choosing which of many stimuli that will be processed. Organization involves collecting the information into some pattern. Interpretation involves understanding the pattern
Selective attention: filtering out and attending only to important sensory messages
Feature detectors: specialized cells in the brain that respond only to certain sensory information
Habituation: tendency of the brain to ignore environmental factors that remain constant
proposed laws of organization that specify how people perceive form. Gestaltists
Perceptual Constancy is the tendency for the environment to be perceived as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input. Size constancy Shape constancy Color constancy Brightness constancy
Depth perception is the ability to perceive three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distance.
Binocular cues include retinal disparity and convergence.
Monocular cues include linear perspective, relative size, texture gradient, light and shadow, and parallax (difference in size/shape of an object due to its being viewed from 2 disparate vantage points).
Trichromatic theory Eye contains 3 different color sensitive elements Blue, green or red elements Trichromatic theory accounts for color mixing of lights
Opponent-Process theory Visual system is organized into red-green, blue-yellow and black-white units. Theory can account for negative color afterimages
Interpretation is influenced by: perceptual adaptation perceptual set individual motivation frame of reference
Subliminal stimuli are stimuli presented below the threshold of awareness; the effect on behavior is uncertain.
Extrasensory Perception refers to the ability to perceive stimuli that are outside the 5 senses
Telepathy: the ability to read minds
Clairvoyance: the ability to perceive objects or events
Precognition: the ability to predict the future
Psychokinesis: the ability to move objects
Created by: bella91